PS251, Lec 9, Ex. 3 11/11/2013
Believed factor analysis was too limited.
Basic problem with factor analysis: cluster analysis, then you have label them. Whatever the researcher
labels can be what the researcher thinks, so may be prone to distortion.
Introduced Functional Equivalence: believed regularities of people’s behaviors arise from this:
Studied prejudice viewed culture as an important influence on personality
Functional Equivalence regularities arise because:
(a) individual views many situations/stimuli in the same way
(b) many of the individual’s behaviors are similar in meaning
Therefore a trait is an internal structure that “renders
many stimuli functionally equivalent” and can “guide equivalent forms of adaptive and expressive
The superpatriot: someone who’d view different cultures, civil rights activities, etc, as objects to
despise. All these things are equivalent. Give negative speeches or join hateful groups. In his mind, all
these things are functionally equivalent. Reduce things down to make sense of the world.
Common Traits & Personal Dispositions (which has 4 types):
Common Traits: Traits that people in a population share. Said Freud didn’t take into consideration that
motives of a child are going to be different than motives of an adult. Motives take functional autonomy.
Everybody has it but what you have is really unique.
Proprium: your self. Your own unique qualities. Human psyche is composed of different layers with an
irreducible core. Core has central forces that predict your behavior.
To understand a person’s uniqueness you have to look into personal
dispositions: 4 of them:
Nuclear quality: your goals, your motives, and your unique style. What motivates you?
Personal disposition: trait that is peculiar to the individual. What makes you you?
Cardinal: aspects of personal disposition that exert overwhelming influence on behavior. Certain drive
that overrides someone’s behavior.
Central: fundamental qualities that portray an individual. Describe who you are in 10 words or less. Allport said nomothetic is complete. Talking about theories that apply to most people instead of looking at