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Lecture 11

HIST 80B Lecture 11: China and Korea in the Late 19th Century Lecture

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Brandeis University
James Heyward

China and Korea in the Late 19 Century Lecture Meiji Recap The Meiji Restoration was a revolution from above (Tozama) that sought to overthrow feudalism and change the social mobility via industrialization. The country modernized and militarized as a means of protecting the state from foreign threats. Qing China The Old Order remained the same, but the government began to decentralize. The government preserved this order through a series of Conservative Reforms that encompassed the Self Strengthening Movement. These reforms also sought to protect the country from foreign threats. Empress Cixi, Prince Gong, and Li Hongzhang led the initiatives during the reign of the Tongzhi Emperor, the child emperor. The Emperor died before he could fully take power over state affairs, and another child emperor took power the Guangxu Emperor. Throughout history, Empress Cixi has been depicted as wicked, reactionary, etc. by historians (though this view has changed in recent years). SelfStrengthening Movement The Movement had 3 Phases: 1. Focus on military. 2. Focus on economy. 3. Conservative Phase. The military phase accompanied the shift from the banners to provincial armies that followed the Taiping Rebellion. Unlike the Meiji, the Qing avoided buying weapons from the foreigners. The Meiji bought many warships from France in order to strengthen their navy. The Qing sought to produce their own ships, but resulted in them falling behind during the continuously evolving state of weapons. The government supervised merchants unsuccessfully. The Conservative Phase shifted focus on previously existing projects, rather than progress and modernization. Bang Yang Navy and Army
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