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Lecture 20

HIST 80B Lecture 20: Post-War China Lecture Notes

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James Heyward

Post-War China Lecture End of World War II Jiang Jieshi attacked the Communists in 1946, thereby ending the United States negotiated alliance. The Kuomintang lost control of the North to the Communists, and their stronghold over urban areas fell due to public outrage of Kuomintang corruption and authoritarian policy. In 1948, after growing issues with inflation, the Kuomintang promised to fix their monetary policy. Ultimately, they did not fix their policy resulting in both hyperinflation and greater support for the Communists. They took control of Nanjing and Shanghai (1949) with relatively little public resistance. People's Republic of China (1949) Taipei becomes the capital of Nationalist China led by Jiang Jieshi. In 1950, Mao and Stalin sign a treaty of alliance. Mao becomes leader of the leftist faction of the Communist Party. The Maoist (Leftist) faction held that communism could prosper without the existence of capitalism (in Marxist stage theory, communism rises from the ashes of capitalism). The opposing faction hell that Marx was right, and therefore China needed to modernize first. In 1950, Mao passed the Marriage Law, which reformed Chinese society by ending the traditional system of marriage in favor of monogamy, equal rights for both sexes (freedom of divorce and equal property rights), ban on child marriages, and the free choice of partners (ban on arranged marriages). Mao was a known feminist in his time. The law took a while before being fully in effect, but it was retroactive. From it, the new modern Chinese family emerged. The Great Leap Forward (1958 to 1960) The 3 – anti – and 5 – anti campaigns were followed by the “Hundred Flowers” Campaign (1956 to 1957), a movement that encouraged intellectual criticisms of communist policy. These criticisms were used to remove any rightists from the government. The Great Leap Forward (1958 to 1960
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