HIST 131 Lecture 1: The Crusades

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14 Apr 2016
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Meghan Arsenault
The Crusades
1. A. Explain the role of Peter the Hermit in the First Crusade.
B. Explain the role of the Council of Clermont in the First Crusade.
A. Google the Pope at the time. If any famous kinds were involved, mention them.
B. What was gained or lost (including territory) by the crusade.
2. The First Crusade (1096-1099)
3. The Second Crusade (1147-1149) St. Bernard
4. The Third Crusade (1189-1192)
5. The Fourth Crusade (1202-1204) MOST DETAILED
6. A. The Children Crusade (1212).
B. The Shepherd Crusade (1251 only)
7. The Fifth Crusade (1213-1221)
8. The Sixth Crusade (1228-1229)
9. A. The Seventh Crusade (1248-1254)
B. The Eighth Crusade (1270)
10. BRIEFLY summarize the Spanish reconquista.
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1. A. Peter the Hermit was a priest of Amiens and a key figure during the First Crusade. He
was the true author and originator of the First Crusade. Historical sources recount that
during an early visit to Jerusalem some time before 1096, Jesus appeared to Peter the
Hermit in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, and bade him preach the crusade.
B. The Council of Clermont was a mixed synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the
Catholic Church, which was held from November 18-28, 1095 at Clermont, France. Pope
Urban II’s speech on November 27 was the starting point of the First Crusade.
2. A. The pope at the time was Pope Urban II.
B. The First Crusade succeeded in establishing the crusader states of Edessa, Antioch,
Jerusalem, and Tripoli. The establishment of these states in the east helped ease Seljuq
pressure on the Byzantine Empire, which had regained some of its Anatolian territory
with crusader help, and experienced a period of relative peace and prosperity in the 12th
century.
3. A. The pope at the time was Pope Eugene III. He commissioned Bernard to preach the
Second Crusade, and granted the same indulgences for it which Pope has accorded to the
First Crusade.
B. Manasses of Hierges, Philip of Milly and others were sent from Jerusalem to assist,
but arrived too late. Joscelin II continued to rule the remnants of the county
from Turbessel, but little by little the rest of the territory was captured by Muslims or sold
to the Byzantines.
4. A. The pope at the time was Pope Gregory VIII.
B. Neither side was entirely satisfied with the results of the war. Though Richard's
victories had deprived the Muslims of important coastal territories and re-established a
viable Frankish state in Palestine, many Christians in the Latin West felt disappointed that
he had elected not to pursue the recapture of Jerusalem.
5. A. The pope at the time was Pope Innocent III.
B. Pope Innocent III succeeded to the papacy in January 1198, and the preaching of a
new crusade became the prime goal of his pontificate, On 11 July, the Crusaders took
positions opposite the Palace of Blachernae on the northwest corner of the city. Their first
attempts were repulsed, but on 17 July, with four divisions attacking the land walls while
the Venetian fleet attacked the sea walls from the Golden Horn, the Venetians took a
section of the wall of about 25 towers, while the Varangian guard held off the Crusaders
on the land wall. Alexios III finally took offensive action, leading 17 divisions from the
St. Romanus Gate, vastly outnumbering the crusaders. Alexios III's army of about 8,500
men faced the Crusaders' seven divisions (about 3,500 men), but his courage failed, and
the Byzantine army returned to the city without a fight.[40] The unforced retreat and the
effects of the fire greatly damaged morale, and the disgraced Alexios III abandoned his
subjects, slipping out of the city and fleeing to Mosynopolis in Thrace. The Imperial
officials quickly deposed their runaway emperor and restored Isaac II, robbing the
crusaders of the pretext for attack. The crusaders were now in the quandary of having
achieved their stated aim while being debarred from the actual objective, namely the
reward that the younger Alexios had (unbeknownst to the Byzantines) promised them.
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