PHIL 111 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: False Dilemma, Fallacy, Electronic Component
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1. Appeal to Ignorance
You can’t prove that there aren’t Martians living in caves under the surface
of Mars, so it is reasonable for me to believe they are.
2. Appeal to False Authority
Well, Isaac Newton believed in Alchemy, do you think you know more than
3. Appeal to Force
Son: Dad, why do I have to spend my summer at Jesus camp?
Dad: Because if you don’t, you will spend your entire summer in your room
with nothing but your Bible!
4. Appeal to the Majority
Lots of people bought this album, so it must be good.
5. False Dilemma
If you do not vote for this candidate, you must be a Communist.
A cold soda is better than a warm soda. After all, nothing is better than a
warm soda, and a cold soda is better than nothing.
7. Begging the Question
If aliens didn’t steal my newspaper, who did? (Assume that the newspaper
was actually stolen).
8. Ad Hominem
I saw magpie and ten minutes later, I crashed my car, therefore magpies
are bad luck.
9. Slippery Slope
If we allow gay people to get married, what is next? Allowing people to
marry their dogs?
After smoke comes out of an electronic component, it no longer works.
Therefore, the smoke was magic and made the component work.