POLI 172 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: United States Census Bureau, Family Reunification, Cockstock Incident

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31 Jan 2016
Chapter 1: The American People
A Demographic Profile
North America
oEarly cultural diversity
oFirst immigrants (Indians/Native Americans) went on to found many civilizations
oUs Census Bureau recognizes 564 tribes
oUmbrella term European for other immigrants deceptive
These settlers came from countries that differed in many ways (language,
religion, politics), but also often had been at war with each other.
Immigration & Ethnic Diversity
Earliest Europeans of the southeastern and southwestern territories were likely to be
Roman Catholics from France and Spain (Northeast)
oMuch of what is now Arizona, New Mexico, California, and Texas was populated
by Mexican Catholics of mixed Spanish and Indian descent (Southwest)
oGermany provided more immigrants than England
Immigrants would often self-segregate into territories (Asians-The West)
oHelped produce distinctive and state cultures
oUnited by non-citizenship/slavery even though from diverse backgrounds
Immigration Policy
oMoved from state to federal government
oCongress began restricting immigration in 1798
Alien Act
Immigration broadened in the 19th century
oEastern Europe, China, and Japan
oIreland and Germany
o1907—restriction of Japanese entry to Hawaii
Surges led to efforts to slow the number of admissions
oNew categories post- WWII of categories denied entry
Anarchists, revolutionaries, communist party members, others deemed
Voluntary returnees; deportations
oGreat Depression
1965 Civil Rights Movement
oEnd of nationality restrictions on immigration
oDoor opened to everyone
Illegal immigration –Mexican border; overstay visas
oImpact of recession
oUndocumented residents estimated to be about 4 percent of the total population
and 5 percent of the labor force
American Diversity
oEvery ten years (zero zero year)
Identify how many people there are in the country
oMandated by the Constitution
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oDetermines the size and distribution of population within the states
oPurpose of apportioning the fixed number of seats in the House of
o435 seats in House of Representatives
o100 seats in the Senate
Controversies in 2010
oDemocrats favor the fullest count possible
Believe most of the uncounted poor and minorities
More like to vote democratic
oRepublicans resist efforts to produce more accurate counts
Believe in small government
oTally should only include citizens NOT those who are not citizens
Immigration and Ethnic Diversity
Preference System
oFamily reunification
oHigh demand job skills
Science, math, engineering, and medicine
oDiversity admissions
From countries that have historically low rates of legal immigration
Refugees and asylees
2008: 1.1 million people granted legal residency
oMore born in Mexico than any other country
oFollowed distantly by persons born in China, India, the Philippines and Cuba
oTrends likely to continue given the preference system, particularly family
Immigration and Political Cleavage
Anti-foreign, or nativist, sentiments common throughout our history
Usually most pronounced when immigration levels are high and economic times are bad
oWave of Irish immigration due to the potato famine in the 1840’s—anti-Irish and
anti-Catholic sentiment
Know-Nothing Party
oPurges of Chinese from California; Exclusion Law of 1882
oWWI—anti-German hostility
oRed Scare—anti-Russian and Eastern European immigrant sentiment
oAll, however, contributed strongly to the making of America
Religious Diversity
Many of the earliest settlers came here to escape religious persecution
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Maryland
o“plantations of religion”
oGave state protection to specific religious groups
Rhode Island; religion dissent Roger Williams
oMassachusetts’ Puritan society had executed Quakers and banned Catholic
Founders did not include an official religion, although some wanted one
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