SOCI 102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: The World Factbook, Social Change, Global City

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15 Nov 2016
Chapter 16
Population, the Environment and Social Change
1. Demography is the scientific study of population
a. Crude Birth Rate the number of live births in a given year for every 1,000
people in a population
i. CBR= (number of births/total population) x 1000
ii. The country with the lowest birth rate is Japan (7.8)
iii. The country with the highest birth rate is Niger (50)
b. Crude Death Rate the number of deaths in a given year for every 1,000
people in a population
i. CDR for the entire world population is 8.3
ii. The ten countries with the highest crude death rate, according to
the 2012 CIA World Factbook estimates, are:
1. South Africa (Africa)
2. Ukraine (Africa)
3. Lesotho (Africa)
4. Chad (Africa)
5. Guinea-Bissau (Africa)
6. Central African Republic
7. Afghanistan (Asia)
8. Somalia (Africa)
9. Bulgaria (Europe)
10. Swaziland (Africa)
c. Sex Ratio the number of males per 100 females
d. Life Expectancy the average life span of a country’s population
2. World Population: 6.9 Billion
3. Urbanization
a. Studies the growth and development of cities, as these are centers of
human activity with high degrees of population density.
4. Urban Development in the US
a. Cities of different eras have significant different characteristics
b. The function of cities depends on economic development
c. Four stages in Urban Development:
i. Commercial, Industrial, Corporate, Global
1. Commercial Cities: from 1620 (the beginning of the
European settlement) to 1850
a. Trading dominated cities (economy)
b. Farmersmerchantsthe English
c. Raw materials (tobacco, lumber, salt
fish)manufactured goods
d. All cities were ocean ports: in 1742 the five largest
cities in US
i. Boston, New York, Philadelphia, New Port,
2. Industrial Cities: from 1860 to 1950
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