Class Notes (838,986)
United States (325,675)
Philosophy (46)
2250 (23)
Lecture

Translation guidelines.pdf

10 Pages
48 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Philosophy
Course
2250
Professor
James Hildebrand
Semester
Spring

Description
TRANSLATION INTO SL CHALLENGES OF TRANSLATION 1. Distinguishing logical from non-logical sentences. Not all English sentences have truth values; some have more than one e.g., questions, commands, the liar sentence 2. Distinguishing truth-functional from non-truth functional connectives. Not all English connectives are truth-functional e.g., “before,” “because,” “it is possible that,” “believes that” (Non-truth functional connectives build a compound sentence that has a truth value that is not fully determined by the truth value of its component parts.) “I entered the data before I went for coffee,” (if it is true that you entered the data and true that you went for coffee, it could still be either true or false that you did the one before the other) “I left because it was raining,” (if it is true that you left and true that it was raining, it can still be either true or false that you left because it was raining) “Laura believes that if you eat before class you will not be able to concentrate” (whether or not Laura believes this is not determined by whether or not it is true) “It is possible that some rotten eggs got into the crate” (if it is true that some rotten eggs got into the crate it must certainly be true that it is possible they did, but if it is in fact false that they did it might still be either true or false that it is possible they could have done so). 3. English has more than one word for the same truth-functional connective … e.g., “and,” “moreover,” “also,” “furthermore,” etc. … and names for connectives that are not even words, but just parts of words … e.g., “non-,” “un-,” “non-,” … and names for connectives that are entire phrases scattered around in different parts of the sentence e.g., “It is not the case that p,” “p unless q in which case r,” 4. English uses the same word for different truth-functional connectives. e.g., “strong” and “weak” senses of “or,” “if,” and “unless” 5. English uses the same word for truth-functional and non-truth functional connectives… e.g., “if” used to designate a sufficient condition on keeping a promise and “if’ used to designate a causal condition on an effect … or for truth functional connectives as well as for particles that are not sentential connectives at all e.g., “and” used as a truth-functional connective and as used in “Cats and dogs make bad company with one another.” 6. English words that are used as English truth-functional connectives may carry extra elements of meaning that have nothing to do with logic. e.g., “but” 7. English has words for truth-functional connectives that do not have their own symbols in SL “ee.i, er p nor q;” strong “or;” “p unless q in which case r” 8. English is not always explicit about how compound sentences are to be punctuated. Where it is, it may use words rather than punctuation marks to stand for punctuation marks. e.g., some connectives are paired with words that designate the position of a punctuation mark. “Both … and …,” “Either … or …,” “Neit her … nor …,” “If … then …” should be treated as determining the position of a left parenthesis and a connective, respectively. 9. English conditional sentences do not use connectives and they do not have antecedents or consequents. Instead they place conditions on the occurrence of results, and they inflect the statement of those conditions. (An inflection is a modification of a word, or a word used in conjunction with another word or phrase, that is used to indicate a special grammatical role. For example “-ed” is an inflection attached to the end of a word to indicate a reference to the past — as in “hunt/hunted.”) e.g., “if” and “only if” are not connectives but inflections. “If” inflects a condition as being sufficient, “only if” as being necessary. English does have some words — “implies,” “entails,” “yields” — that might be used as connectives for conditional sentences; however many logicians consider this use to be ungrammatical. They maintain that “implies” should be used to name the relation between the premises of a valid argument and its conclusion; “entails” a truth- functional relation between a set and a sentence, and “yields” a relation between a set of assumptions and a derived sentence. They reject the use of these words to name the ⊃ connective of SL or to connect English sentences stating sufficient conditions to English sentences stating results of the satisfaction of those conditions. Whereas SL uses two conditional connectives, ⊃ and ≡, English inflects truth functional conditions in five main ways: - necessary conditions: necessary conditions say that satisfying the condition is required for a certain result, but they do not promise that it is all that is required — so you might satisfy the condition and still fail to get the result, but you cannot get the result without having satisfied the condition (indicated by phrases such as “it is necessary that,” “it is requisite that,” “it must be the case that,” or “only if”) - sufficient conditions: sufficient conditions say that satisfying the condition is all that is required for obtaining the result, but they do not suggest that this is the only way to obtain the result — so you might get the result without having satisfied the condition but if you do satisfy the condition you are guaranteed the result (indicated by phrases such as “it is sufficient that, “provided that,” “in case,” “supposing that,” or “if”) - necessary and sufficient conditions: these state that satisfying the condition is required to obtain the result and that it is all that is required (indicated by “if and only if”) - exceptions: these state that a certain result will obtain except in the case where a certain condition is satisfied, in which case it may or may not obtain (indicated by phrases such as “unless,” or “if not”) - strong exceptions: these state that a certain result will obtain except in the case where a certain condition is satisfied in which case it will definitely not obtain (indicated by phrases such as “unless,” or “unless … in which case not”) Most English conditions are not truth-functional. Truth functional conditions are used only in restricted contexts (e.g., the language of contracts, obligations, promises; definitions; logical relations). Most notably, causal conditions are not truth-functional. 10. In SL, the syntax of conditional sentences is determined by the order of their immediate components. The antecedent is the first immediate component, the consequent the second. Because English states conditionals by inflecting the conditions, order does not matter. English may state the condition either at the beginning of the sentence or at the end. e.g., “If it rains then I won’t come;” “I won’t come if it rains;” “Only if you pay the fee will you be admitted;” “you will be admitted only if you pay the fee;” “I will lead unless you tell me not to;” “unless you tell me not to I will lead.” The order of the component parts of English conditional sentences therefore provides no clue as to how they are to be translated into SL. The part that comes first is as often as not the part that needs to be translated as the consequent of a conditional sentence of SL. The English distinction between what is stated as a condition and what figures as a consequence of that condition also provides no clue as to how the components are to placed in a conditional sentence of SL. Whether English conditions are to be translated in the antecedent or the consequent position of conditional sentences of SL depends on what type of condition they are. GUIDELINES FOR TRANSLATION 1. English sentences that do not have truth values or that have more than one truth value do not get translated into SL 2. English non-truth functional connectives do not get translated. This means that English sentences that have been compounded using non-truth functional connectives get translated as atomic sentences of SL. (The principal exceptions are subjunctive or causal conditionals used as premises in an argument and some non-truth functional unary connectives applied to conjunctions. These are discussed in Ch. 2.3.) It also means that no attempt should be made to attempt to convey the non-logical meaning of English connectives that carry non-logical meaning in addition to truth-functional meaning. e.g., “but” means “and” for purposes of translation 3. In general: 3.0.0 Logical sentences of English must always be translated as sentences of SL (not expressions that are not sentences). Except in the case where a single sentence states both the premises and the conclusion of an argument, whole English sentences become whole sentences of SL (do not break them up at their English conjunctions). 3.0.1 Sentence letters of SL can symbolize either simple or compound sentences of English. Where a sentence of English is truth-functionally compound, it should be translated as a compound sentence of SL, unless its status as such is irrelevant to its logical form (in exercises given in this term, this will never be the case). 3.1. The “~” of SL symbolizes those unary connectives of English that build compound sentences that reverse the truth value of their immediate components. These are connectives expressed with phrases like “it is not the case that,” words like “not,” or particles like “in-,” “un-,” or “non-” 3.2. The “&” of SL symbolizes those binary connectives of English that build compound sentences that are true if and only if both their immediate components are true. These are connectives expressed with words like “and,” “moreover,” “furthermore,” “although,” “however,” “nevertheless,” “nonetheless,” “but,” etc. In the connective expressions, “It is both not the case that… and not the case that …” and “It is not the case that both … and …” the word “both” determines where the punctuation mark goes in relation to “not.” “Both not-p and not-q” is translated as “(~P & ~Q).” “Not both p and q” is translated as “~(P & Q).” 3.3. The “v” of SL symbolizes those binary connectives of English that build compound sentences that are false if and only if both of their immediate components are false. These are connectives expressed with words like “or,” “alternatively,” “at least one of,” etc. The “strong or” of English means “Either p or q, but not both” and is translated accordingly, as “(P v Q) & ~(P & Q).” In this course, we follow the principle of charity. This means that if there is any question of what the speaker means, they should be interpreted as saying the thing that is most likely to be true. Since a “weak or” of English or “v” of SL is true on three of four possible truth value assignments to the components, whereas a “strong or” is true on only two, our practice is always to interpret the speaker as intending to use the “weak or” unless they explicitly add “but not both” to their sentence. The “neither p nor q” of English is short for “not-either p or q”, and is translated accordingly as “~(P v Q).” 3.4. The most foolproof way of correctly translating English conditionals into SL is to first rewrite them in “standard form” and then translate them. (The text’s requests to “paraphrase” sentences may otherwise be ignored.) (in what follows I use lowercase bold-italic “p” and “q” to designate sentences of English and uppercase bold-italic “P” and “Q” to designate sentences of SL) 3.4.1 When rewriting a conditional that places a necessary condition on a result in standard form the result is stated first and the thing that is identified as the necessary condition follows after the words “only if” So the standard form for necessary conditions is: p only if q e.g., each of: “Only if you pay the fee will you be admitted”; “To be admitted it is necessary that you pay the fee”; “A necessary condition for you to be admitted is that you pay the fee”; “It is necessary that the fee be paid for you to be admitted” is rewritten in standard form as: “You will be admitted only if you pay the fee” 3.4.2 When rewriting a conditional that places a sufficient condition on a result in standard form the sufficient condition is stated first after “if” and the result is stated second, after “then.” So the standard form for sufficient conditions is: if p then q e.g., each of: “I won’t come if it rains;” “I won’t come provided that it rains,” “Provided that it rains I won’t come,” “In case it rains I won’t come” “I won’t come in case it rains” “For me not to come it suffices that it rains” “Its raining is a sufficient condition for me not to come” is rewritten in standard form as
More Less

Related notes for 2250

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit