PHY 113 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Gas Torus, Galilean Moons, Wind Speed

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9 Jun 2018
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Chapter 11 Jupiter
11.1 Orbital and Physical Properties 11.2 The Atmosphere of Jupiter
A Cometary Impact 11.3 Internal Structure
Almost a Star?
11.4 Jupiter’s Magnetosphere 11.5 The Moons of Jupiter 11.6 Jupiter’s Ring
11.1 Orbital and Physical Properties
This figure shows the solar system from a vantage point that emphasizes the
relationship of the jovian planets to the rest of the system
11.1 Orbital and Physical Properties
Three views of Jupiter (in true-color):
1) From a small telescope on Earth (we should hopefully be able to see this for ourselves in
Lab!)
Three views of Jupiter (in true-color):
2) From the Hubble Space Telescope (orbiting Earth)
Three views of Jupiter (in true-color):
3) From the Cassini spacecraft (on its way to Saturn)
as all other planets put together. ~1/1,000 of the Sun’s mass)
Radius: 71,500 km (11.2 times Earths)
or metallic
as inner planets are
Rotation rate: Problematic, as Jupiter has no solid surface; different parts of atmosphere
rotate at different rates
From magnetic field, rotation period is about 10 hours (9 hr, 55 min)
Because Jupiter spins so fast, it bulges out along its equator, becoming “squished”
11.2 The Atmosphere of Jupiter
Major visible features:
Bands of clouds;
Great Red Spot (more details to come)
Atmosphere has bright zones and dark belts
Zones are warmer, and are higher than belts
Stable flow, called zonal flow, underlies zones and bands Simplified model
Jupiter atmosphere Model:
Caused by convection (just like weather on Earth) Upwelling zones are high-pressure, warm,
lighter color Sinking belts are low-pressure, cooler, darker color
Real picture is much more complicated
Here: Wind speed with respect to internal rotation rate
Bands/rotation change all the time!
Composition of atmosphere: mostly molecular hydrogen and helium; small amounts of
methane, ammonia, and water vapor
These cannot account for color; color probably due to complex chemical interactions
No solid surface; take top of troposphere to be at “0” km
Lowest cloud layer cannot be seen by optical telescopes
Measurements by Galileo probe show high wind speeds even at great depthprobably due to
heating from planet, not from Sun
Great Red Spot has existed for at least 300 years, possibly much longer
Color and energy source still not understood
Lightning-like flashes have been seen; also shorter- lived rotating storms
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