BIOL 109 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Electron Microscope, Optical Microscope, Histology

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9 Dec 2016
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An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
1.1
Anatomy- study of the body structures
Oldest medical science
Physiology- study of the body functions
Molecular Biology- studies process at the level of individual genes
Reveals basis for many disorders and diseases
Understanding normal physiology assists in recognizing when something abnormal occurs in the
body
1.2
Medical Terminology- uses prefixes suffixes and root words to build terms related to the body in
health and disease
Many medical terms come from greek roots
Anatomy- “a cutting open”
Anatomy- where muscle is located
Physiology- how the muscle contracts
Early anatomists created maps of the human body. Prominent structures served as landmarks and
then the distance was measured and special direction terms were used.
International Anatomical Terminology- published in 19998, to serve as a worldwide official
standard of anatomical vocabulary
Eponym-commemorative name for a structure or clinical condition that was originally
named for a real or mythical person
Achille tendon
1.3
Principle of Complementarity of Structure and Function- all specific functions are performed
by specific structures, and the form of the structures relates to its function
difficult to separate A&P because structures are closely related to their functions
Gross Anatomy- macroscopic anatomy
large structures that can be seen without a microscope
involves cadavers
Surface anatomy- study of general form using feeling
Regional anatomy- focuses on specific areas like the head
Systemic anatomy- study of structures of organ systems
Organ system- group of organs that work together
Clinical anatomy- subspecialties important in clinical practice like radiology
Developmental anatomy- describes the change that takes place from conception to
adulthood like speech
Embryology- study of early development
Microscopic Anatomy- need microscope to see
Dissecting microscope- tissue structure
Light microscope- basic details of a cell structure
Electron microscope- individual molecules
Cytology- study of internal structures and cells
Histology- examination of tissues
Physiology
Cell Physiology- study of the function of cells
Organ Physiology- study of the function of the specific organs
Systemic Physiology- includes all aspects of the functioning of specific organ systems
Pathological Physiology- study of diseases on organ functions or system functions
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