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Reference Guide

Skin - Reference Guides

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City College of San Francisco
ANAT - Anatomy

p er m a ch a rts MT The Skin The Skin 2nd EDITION • The skin (or integument) is the Figure 1: Layers of the Epidermis (Cross Section) Stratum corneum • Outermost “horny layer” of thin squamous cells that are continuously shed and largest organ in the body, and has replaced on the surface • The cytosol of these cells is replaced by many functions, including water-repelling keratin • Functions as a barrier to water loss and threats protection, sensation, from the environment thermoregulation, and some metabolic processes • Different Stratum lucidum areas of the body have different • “Clear layer” that is especially prominent in thick skin • Cell nuclei are generally absent, and the cells are filled with a soft gel-like substance called functional characteristics, such as eleidin, which eventually becomes keratin thickness, color, and the presence Stratum granulosum of epidermal appendages (hair, • “Granular layer” where keratinization begins • Cell nuclei are either absent or glands, and nails) degenerate • This layer may be absent in thin skin Stratum spinosum • Skin is formed by two layers: • “Spiny layer” where protein synthesis occurs for keratin production the epidermis and the dermis • This layer appears prickly under a microscope • Most skin is classified as thin, but skin of the palms and soles of the Stratum basale • Single “base layer” of columnar cells where mitosis occurs • Cells migrate feet is classified as thick • In thick from here to the upper layers and are eventually shed • Melanocytes, which are skin, the epidermis is thickened, but cells that produce the pigment melanin, are found in this layer • Differences in not the dermis • Skin thickness skin color are due to the amount of melanin produced, not the number of ranges from 0.5 mm to over 5 mm m elanocytes Stratum germinativum • “Growth layer” referring to the stratum spinosum and stratum basale together M erkel’s discs Nociceptors • Superficial nerve • Nerve fibers, ending in endings that detect dendritic knobs, that are Pore Meissner’s corpuscle lght touch the primary sensory • Superficial, large receptors that respond to light touch and Figure 2: Cross Section of receptors for pain low-frequency vibration • Found in nipples, lips, and fingertips Generic Skin Area Dermal papillae Epidermis • In thick skin, these are • Outer, thin layer of arranged in curving the skin • Consists of parallel ridges which form layers of stratified fingerprints and footprints squamous epithelium • Lacks blood vessels and has few nerve Arterioles, venules & endings • Thickness capillaries varies on the body, • Supply blood to the skin with thickest areas on • Help regulate body the soles and palms, temperature by adjusting and thinnest on the blood flow to radiate excess eyelids heat • Capillary dilation causes blushing in face Dermis Krause’s end bulbs • Inner, thicker • Smaller variant of connective tissue layer Meissner’s corpuscle with mostly of collagenosed fewer endings, detecting fibers, with some elastin touch, vibration, and cold and reticular fibers • Often found in mucous • Contains specialized membranes structures such as hair follicles, sweat and sebaceous glands, blood gland (sudoriferous) vessels, nerves, and • The most numerous type lymphatic vessels of skin gland • There are two types: eccrine (merocrine) and apocrine Pacinian corpuscle • Eccrine sweat glands • Nerve receptors found are the most important, in deep skin that respond producing transparent, to deep pressure watery perspiration all • Mainly found in the over the body which hands and feet lowers body temperature and eliminates waste Subcutaneous layer • Apocrine sweat glands (hypodermis) become functional at • Connective tissue layer puberty, and produce a below the skin containing milky, odorous secretion in a large amount of fat the axillary and genital • Carries the major blood regions vessels and nerves to the overlying skin
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