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Reference Guide

Reproductive System Disorders - Reference Guides

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Department
ANAT - Anatomy
Course Code
ANAT 14
Professor
All

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TM
permacharts
Amenorrhea
Amenorrhea is an absence of menstrual periods
Primary amenorrhea is a failure to start menstruating
by age 16 • This can be caused by hormone imbalance,
genetic disorders, reproductive organ deformities, brain
lesions or being severely under/overweight • Treatment
involves hormone therapy • Secondary amenorrhea
refers to someone who has had normal periods, but has
not menstruated for 6 or more months • It is caused by
pregnancy, sudden weight loss, emotional factors, ovarian
or pituitary tumors, athletic training, illness or menopause
• Underlying cause is treated; can use hormone therapy
Dysmenorrhea
Dysmenorrhea is painful menstruation Primary
dysmenorrhea occurs in absence of a pathological
condition, usually within 3 years of onset of menstruation
• It is thought to be due to high levels of prostaglandins,
so prostaglandin-inhibiting drugs (ibuprofen) are effective
• Oral contraceptives may be usedSecondary
dysmenorrhea is usually caused by an underlying disorder
(e.g., endometriosis, cervical stenosis, pelvic infections)
Treatment is of the underlying disorder
Ovarian cysts
Functional ovarian cysts occur when a follicle grows
but does not release an egg • The fluid within the follicle is
retained and a cyst forms • These cysts should not be
Endometriosis
Endometriosis occurs when parts of endometrium
implant on organs outside the uterus or in the pelvic cavity
Tissue reacts to hormones, and thickens and sloughs
during menstruation • Adhesions and cysts can develop,
causing great pain • Symptoms include heavy periods and
painful intercourse or defecation • It may be caused by
menstrual tissue traveling up the fallopian tubes instead of
out of the body, which may be encouraged by use of
tampons • Treatment involves hormone therapy, surgical
removal of tissue or, in severe cases, total hysterectomy
Cystocele
A cystocele is protrusion of the bladder into vagina due
to weakness in anterior vaginal wall • Weakness is often
caused by trauma in pregnancy & delivery • Symptoms
include frequent urination, stress incontinence (leaking
urine due to sneezing, coughing or lifting), and inability to
completely empty bladder, which may cause infection and
painful urination • Kegel exercises can help to strengthen
pelvic floor muscles • Surgery may be necessary
Rectocele
A rectocele is protrusion of the rectum into the vagina
due to weakness in the posterior vaginal wall, and may be
present along with a cystocele • Again, this weakness is
often caused by trauma during pregnancy and delivery, and
can be treated with Kegel exercises or surgery
• Symptoms include fecal incontinence and constipation
Venereal (sexually transmitted) diseases (STDs) are highly
contagious infections contracted primarily during vaginal,
anal or oral sex, or by direct genital contact
The primary route of transmission is through body fluids
(e.g., blood, semen, vaginal secretions, saliva)
• STDs are the most common communicable diseases, and
are most common in people between the ages of 16 and 24
• Risk factors include having multiple sexual partners,
having sex with someone without knowing their sexual
history, using drugs or alcohol (which can impair one’s
judgment), sharing needles, having a blood transfusion, and
having hemophilia • Some STDs can be passed from an
infected mother to her child during pregnancy or childbirth
or while breastfeeding • Using condoms during sexual
activity can help to prevent the spread of STDs
SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES (STDs)
Uterus Endometrial tissue Adhesions Vagina
Endometriosis
Acquired Immune
Deficiency Syndrome
(AIDS)
Candidiasis
(Yeast infection)
Chancroid
(Soft chancre)
Chlamydia
Genital herpes
Genital warts
Gonorrhea
(“The clap”)
Hepatitis B
(Serum hepatitis)
Pubic lice
(Crabs)
Scabies
Syphilis
Trichomoniasis
Human immunodeficiency
virus (HIV)
types 1
and 2
Candida albicans (a fungus)
Haemophilus ducreyi
(a bacterium)
Chlamydia trachomatis
(a bacterium)
Herpes simplex virus type 2
(HSV-2)
Human papilloma virus
(HPV-6, HPV-7)
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
(a bacterium)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV)
Phthirus pubis
(a parasitic insect)
Sarcoptes scabiei
(a parasitic insect)
Treponema pallidum
(a bacterium)
Trichomonas vaginalis
(a protozoan)
Once infected with HIV, there is an asymptomatic period • Clinical AIDS diagnosis
occurs once the patient has < 200 T cells per mm3of blood • With AIDS, the
immune system is impaired, resulting in susceptibility to infections
(e.g., pneumonia); patient may also suffer from fever, malignancies, swollen lymph
nodes, weight loss, fatigue, diarrhea, and night sweats • AIDS patients may become
severely debilitated, and death will occur as a result of secondary infection
Though normally present in the vagina, an overgrowth of the fungus causes a white
discharge, vulvar edema and irritation, and vaginal plaques • Men contract it from
women, and are often asymptomatic, but may have lesions and white patches on
the penis that cause irritation
Characterized by lesions in the genital area that grow, ulcerate, and spread
If untreated, inguinal lymph nodes may become enlarged and inflamed, and can
rupture through the skin • It can lead to severe tissue destruction
The most common bacterial STD • It is often asymptomatic, but some patients may
experience painful urination or abnormal discharge • It can lead to PID in women
and epididymitis in men, both causes of sterility
Characteristic lesions in the genital area, spread by skin-to-skin contact • Symptoms
include swollen glands, fever, headache, and painful urination • It is contagious when
lesions are present • Recurrences are common
Cauliflower-like raised genital lesions • Usually painless, but may burn or itch
• Presence on cervix is associated with pre-malignant or malignant cervical changes
Symptoms similar to those of chlamydia • May infect the eyes, throat or rectum
• It can spread through the bloodstream, causing gonococcal arthritis or septicemia
• If spread to brain or heart, it can lead to death
Inflammation of the liver, which can lead to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis or liver cancer
• Symptoms include fever, jaundice, weight loss, fatigue, and pain
Insects infest the pubic hair and feed on blood • They cause intense itching in the
pubic area, and scratching can cause the lice to spread or secondary infection
Mites infest and burrow into the skin, where they lay eggs • Burrows appear as
small, gray swellings on genitals, fingers, wrists, and armpits • They are itchy, and
scratching them causes scabs and sores
In the primary stage, a painless chancre is present on the genitals • In the
secondary stage, organism spreads and produces lesions almost anywhere • In the
latent stage, it is asymptomatic • In the tertiary stage, gummas (lesions) invade
organs and systems, causing severe life-threatening damage
Often asymptomatic • Symptoms may include urethritis, itching, pain during
urination or intercourse, and profuse yellow vaginal discharge
No known cure • Disease progression is slowed by nucleoside
reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (e.g., AZT), non-nucleoside
reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs, such as delvaridine and
nevirapine), and protease inhibitors (e.g., ritonavir or saquinivir)
• The most effective treatment is a combination of several of
these (a “cocktail”), known as HAART (highly active anti-retroviral
therapy) • Secondary infections are treated accordingly
Antifungal topical creams, suppositories or oral medications
Loose fitting, cotton clothing
Antibiotics (e.g., erythromycin) • Lesions may need to be drained
surgically
Antibiotics (e.g., azithromycin, doxycycline)
No known cure • Antiviral drugs (e.g., acyclovir) can reduce
number and severity of outbreaks
Chemical or surgical removal • Topical drug therapy may also be
used
Antibiotics (e.g., ceftriaxone, penicillin, tetracycline) are given
orally or through intra-muscular injection
No known cure, but a vaccine is available to those at high risk
Clothes and sheets should be washed in hot water to avoid
reinfestation • Mechanical removal with a special comb
Clothes and sheets should be washed in hot water to avoid
reinfestation • Mechanical removal with a special comb
Antibiotics (e.g., penicillin) are given as early as possible
Anti-infective drugs (e.g., metronidazole) and antibiotics are given
orally or vaginally
Disease Pathogen Signs & Symptoms Treatment
confused with polycystic ovarian disease or ovarian
neoplasms (benign or malignant tumors) • Symptoms can
include pain during intercourse, abdominal swelling, urinary
retention or vaginal bleeding • Small cysts may not require
treatment; large ones can be drained laparoscopically or
reduced with oral contraceptives
Fibroids
Fibroids are benign tumors within uterus, consisting of
smooth muscle and connective tissue • They are common,
and calcify after menopause • They can be asymptomatic,
or can cause pelvic pain and pressure, heavy periods,
abnormal bleeding, constipation or frequent urination
They only occur in pre-menopausal women • Tumors
can be removed surgically; in severe cases, hysterectomy
may be required
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE DISORDERS
Reproductive System Disorders
Reproductive System Disorders
©1999-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. w w w . p e r m a c h a r t s . c o m
2nd EDITION

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Description
p er m a c h a rt sMT Reproductive System Disorders 2nd EDITION SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES (STDs) •Venereal (sexually transmitted) diseases (STDs) are highly• STDs are the most common communicable diseases,and judgment),sharing needles,having a blood transfusion,and contagious infections contracted primarily during vaginal, are most common in people between the ages of 16 and 24 having hemophilia • Some STDs can be passed from an anal or oral sex,or by direct genital contact • Risk factors include having multiple sexual partners, infected mother to her child during pregnancy or childbirth •The primary route of transmission is through body fluids having sex with someone without knowing their sexual or while breastfeeding • Using condoms during sexual (e.g.,blood,semen,vaginal secretions,saliva) history,using drugs or alcohol (which can impair one’s activity can help to prevent the spread of STDs Disease Pathogen Signs & Symptoms Treatment Acquired Immune Human immunodeficiency Once infected with HIV, there is an asymptomatic period • Clinical AIDNo known cure • Disease progression is slowed by nucleoside D eficiency Syndrome virus (HIV) occurs once the patient has < 200 T cells oer mmod • With AIDS, the reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (e.g.,AZT), non-nucleoside (AIDS) types 1 immune system is impaired, resulting in susceptibility to infections reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs, such as delvaridine and and 2 (.g., pneumonia); patient may also suffer from fever, malignancies, swnevirapine), and protease inhibitors (e.g., ritonavir or saquinivir) nodes, weight loss, fatigue, diarrhea, and night sweats • AIDS patients may become • The most effective treatment is a combination of several of severely debilitated, and death will occur as a result of secondary inthese (a “cocktail”), known as HAART (highly active anti-retroviral therapy) • Secondary infections are treated accordingly Candidiasis Candida albicans (a fungusThough normally present in the vagina, an overgrowth of the fungus causes a white Antifungal topical creams, suppositories or oral medications (Yeast infection) discharge, vulvar edema and irritation, and vaginal plaques • Men cont•aLoose fitting, cotton clothing women, and are often asymptomatic, but may have lesions and white patches on the penis that cause irritation Chancroid H aemophilus ducreyi Characterized by lesions in the genital area that grow, ulcerate, and Antibiotics (e.g.,erythromycin) • Lesions may need to be drained (Soft chancre) (a bacterium) •If untreated, inguinal lymph nodes may become enlarged and inflamed, surgically rupture through the skin • It can lead to severe tissue destruction Chlamydia Chlamydia trachomatis The most common bacterial STD • It is often asymptomatic, but some patAntibiotics (e.g., azithromycin, doxycycline) (a bacterium) experience painful urination or abnormal discharge • It can lead to PID in women and epididymitis in men, both causes of sterility Genital herpes Herpes simplex virus type Characteristic lesions in the genital area,spread by skin-to-skin contNo known cure • Antiviral drugs (e.g., acyclovir) can reduce (HSV-2) iclude swollen glands,fever,headache,and painful urination • It is connumber and severity of outbreaks lesions are present • Recurrences are common Genital warts Human papilloma virus Cauliflower-like raised genital lesions • Usually painless, but may buChemical or surgical removal • Topical drug therapy may also be (HPV-6, HPV-7) • Presence on cervix is associated with pre-malignant or malignant cervical changes used Gonorrhea Neisseria gonorrhoeae Symptoms similar to those of chlamydia • May infect the eyes, throat oAntibiotics (e.g., ceftriaxone, penicillin, tetracycline) are given (“The clap”) (a bacterium) • It can spread through the bloodstream, causing gonococcal arthritis orally or through intra-muscular injection • If spread to brain or heart, it can lead to death Hepatitis B Hepatitis B virus (HBV) Inflammation of the liver, which can lead to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis or liver cancer No known cure, but a vaccine is available to those at high risk (Serum hepatitis) • Symptoms include fever, jaundice, weight loss, fatigue, and pain Pubic lice Phthirus pubis Insects infest the pubic hair and feed on blood • They cause intense iClothes and sheets should be washed in hot water to avoid (Crabs) (a parasitic insect) pubic area, and scratching can cause the lice to spread or secondary ireinfestation • Mechanical removal with a special comb Scabies Sarcoptes scabiei Mites infest and burrow into the skin, where they lay eggs • Burrows aClothes and sheets should be washed in hot water to avoid (a parasitic insect) small, gray swellings on genitals, fingers, wrists, and armpits • Theyreinfestation • Mechanical removal with a special comb scratching them causes scabs and sores Syphilis Treponema pallidum In the primary stage, a painless chancre is present on the genitals • Antibiotics (e.g., penicillin) are given as early as possible (a bacterium) secondary stage, organism spreads and produces lesions almost anywhere • In the latent stage, it is asymptomatic • In the tertiary stage, gummas (lesions) invade organs and systems, causing severe life-threatening damage Trichomoniasis Trichomonas vaginalis Often asymptomatic • Symptoms may include urethritis, itching, pain duAnti-infective drugs (e.g., metronidazole) and antibiotics are given (a protozoan) urination or intercourse, and profuse yellow vaginal discharge orally or vaginally FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE DISORDERS Amenorrhea confused with polycystic ovarian disease or ovarian Endometriosis neoplasms (benign or malignant tumors) • Symptoms can • Amenorrhea is an absence of menstrual periods include pain during intercourse, abdominal swelling, urinary Endometriosis occurs when parts of endometrium • Primary amenorrhea is a failure to start menstruating implant on organs outside the uterus or in the pelvic cavity by age 16 • This can be caused by hormone imbalance, retention or vaginal bleeding • Small cysts may not require• Tissue reacts to hormones, and thickens and sloughs genetic disorders, reproductive organ deformities, brain treatment; large ones can be drained laparoscopically or during menstruation • Adhesions and cysts can develop, lesions or being severely under/overweight • Treatment reduced with oral contraceptives causing great pain • Symptoms include heavy periods and involves hormone therapy • Secondary amenorrhea Fibroids painful intercourse or defecation • It may be caused by refers to someone who has had normal periods, but has menstrual tissue traveling up the fallopian tubes instead of not menstruated for 6 or more months • It is caused by • Fibroids are benign tumors within uterus, consisting of out of the body, which may be encouraged by use of pregnancy, sudden weight loss, emotional factors, ovarian smooth muscle and connective tissue • They are common, tampons • Treatment involves hormone therapy, surgical or pituitary tumors, athletic training, illness or menopausend calcify after menopause • They can be asymptomatic, removal of tissue or, in severe cases, total hysterectomy • Underlying cause is treated; can use hormone therapy or can cause pelvic pain and pressure, heavy periods, abnormal bleeding, constipation or frequent urination Cystocele Dysmenorrhea • They only occur in pre-menopausal women • Tumors • A cystocele is protrusion of the bladder into vagina due • Dysmenorrhea is painful menstruation • Primary can be removed surgically; in severe cases, hysterectomy to weakness in anterior vaginal wall • Weakness is often dysmenorrhea occurs in absence of a pathological may be required caused by trauma in pregnancy & delivery • Symptoms condition, usually within 3 years of onset of menstruation include frequent urination, stress incontinence (leaking   • It is thought to be due to high levels of prostaglandins, urine due to sneezing, coughing or lifting), and inability to so prostaglandin-inhibiting drugs (ibuprofen) are effective completely empty bladder, which may cause infection and • Oral contraceptives may be used • Secondary  painful urination • Kegel exercises can help to strengthen dysmenorrhea is usually caused by an underlying disorder pelvic floor muscles • Surgery may be necessary (e.g., endometriosis, cervical stenosis, pelvic infections)  Rectocele • Treatment is of the underlying disorder  Ovarian cysts  • A rectocele is protrusion of the rectum into the vagina  due to weakness in the posterior vaginal wall, and may be • Functional ovarian cysts occur when a follicle grows present along with a cystocele • Again, this weakness is but does not release an egg • The fluid within the follicle is often caused by trauma during pregnancy and delivery, and retained and a cyst forms • These cysts should not be Endometriosis can be treated with Kegel exercises or surgery  Uterus  Endometrial tissue  Adhesions  Vagina • Symptoms include fecal incontinence and constipation ©1999-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. www.permach a rt s .co m permacharts TM FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE DISORDERS (CONT’D) Uterine Prolapse Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS) • Cervical cancer is most common in women aged 30 to 50 • It can be diagnosed with a Pap smear • Symptoms • Uterine prolapse is a downward displacement of uterus • TSS is a systemic disease caused by an increase in include watery, bloody discharge and abnormal bleeding • In first degree prolapse, uterus is still well inside vaginastaphylococcal toxin
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