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Reference Guide

Reproductive System Disorders - Reference Guides

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City College of San Francisco
ANAT - Anatomy

p er m a c h a rt sMT Reproductive System Disorders 2nd EDITION SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES (STDs) •Venereal (sexually transmitted) diseases (STDs) are highly• STDs are the most common communicable diseases,and judgment),sharing needles,having a blood transfusion,and contagious infections contracted primarily during vaginal, are most common in people between the ages of 16 and 24 having hemophilia • Some STDs can be passed from an anal or oral sex,or by direct genital contact • Risk factors include having multiple sexual partners, infected mother to her child during pregnancy or childbirth •The primary route of transmission is through body fluids having sex with someone without knowing their sexual or while breastfeeding • Using condoms during sexual (e.g.,blood,semen,vaginal secretions,saliva) history,using drugs or alcohol (which can impair one’s activity can help to prevent the spread of STDs Disease Pathogen Signs & Symptoms Treatment Acquired Immune Human immunodeficiency Once infected with HIV, there is an asymptomatic period • Clinical AIDNo known cure • Disease progression is slowed by nucleoside D eficiency Syndrome virus (HIV) occurs once the patient has < 200 T cells oer mmod • With AIDS, the reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (e.g.,AZT), non-nucleoside (AIDS) types 1 immune system is impaired, resulting in susceptibility to infections reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs, such as delvaridine and and 2 (.g., pneumonia); patient may also suffer from fever, malignancies, swnevirapine), and protease inhibitors (e.g., ritonavir or saquinivir) nodes, weight loss, fatigue, diarrhea, and night sweats • AIDS patients may become • The most effective treatment is a combination of several of severely debilitated, and death will occur as a result of secondary inthese (a “cocktail”), known as HAART (highly active anti-retroviral therapy) • Secondary infections are treated accordingly Candidiasis Candida albicans (a fungusThough normally present in the vagina, an overgrowth of the fungus causes a white Antifungal topical creams, suppositories or oral medications (Yeast infection) discharge, vulvar edema and irritation, and vaginal plaques • Men cont•aLoose fitting, cotton clothing women, and are often asymptomatic, but may have lesions and white patches on the penis that cause irritation Chancroid H aemophilus ducreyi Characterized by lesions in the genital area that grow, ulcerate, and Antibiotics (e.g.,erythromycin) • Lesions may need to be drained (Soft chancre) (a bacterium) •If untreated, inguinal lymph nodes may become enlarged and inflamed, surgically rupture through the skin • It can lead to severe tissue destruction Chlamydia Chlamydia trachomatis The most common bacterial STD • It is often asymptomatic, but some patAntibiotics (e.g., azithromycin, doxycycline) (a bacterium) experience painful urination or abnormal discharge • It can lead to PID in women and epididymitis in men, both causes of sterility Genital herpes Herpes simplex virus type Characteristic lesions in the genital area,spread by skin-to-skin contNo known cure • Antiviral drugs (e.g., acyclovir) can reduce (HSV-2) iclude swollen glands,fever,headache,and painful urination • It is connumber and severity of outbreaks lesions are present • Recurrences are common Genital warts Human papilloma virus Cauliflower-like raised genital lesions • Usually painless, but may buChemical or surgical removal • Topical drug therapy may also be (HPV-6, HPV-7) • Presence on cervix is associated with pre-malignant or malignant cervical changes used Gonorrhea Neisseria gonorrhoeae Symptoms similar to those of chlamydia • May infect the eyes, throat oAntibiotics (e.g., ceftriaxone, penicillin, tetracycline) are given (“The clap”) (a bacterium) • It can spread through the bloodstream, causing gonococcal arthritis orally or through intra-muscular injection • If spread to brain or heart, it can lead to death Hepatitis B Hepatitis B virus (HBV) Inflammation of the liver, which can lead to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis or liver cancer No known cure, but a vaccine is available to those at high risk (Serum hepatitis) • Symptoms include fever, jaundice, weight loss, fatigue, and pain Pubic lice Phthirus pubis Insects infest the pubic hair and feed on blood • They cause intense iClothes and sheets should be washed in hot water to avoid (Crabs) (a parasitic insect) pubic area, and scratching can cause the lice to spread or secondary ireinfestation • Mechanical removal with a special comb Scabies Sarcoptes scabiei Mites infest and burrow into the skin, where they lay eggs • Burrows aClothes and sheets should be washed in hot water to avoid (a parasitic insect) small, gray swellings on genitals, fingers, wrists, and armpits • Theyreinfestation • Mechanical removal with a special comb scratching them causes scabs and sores Syphilis Treponema pallidum In the primary stage, a painless chancre is present on the genitals • Antibiotics (e.g., penicillin) are given as early as possible (a bacterium) secondary stage, organism spreads and produces lesions almost anywhere • In the latent stage, it is asymptomatic • In the tertiary stage, gummas (lesions) invade organs and systems, causing severe life-threatening damage Trichomoniasis Trichomonas vaginalis Often asymptomatic • Symptoms may include urethritis, itching, pain duAnti-infective drugs (e.g., metronidazole) and antibiotics are given (a protozoan) urination or intercourse, and profuse yellow vaginal discharge orally or vaginally FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE DISORDERS Amenorrhea confused with polycystic ovarian disease or ovarian Endometriosis neoplasms (benign or malignant tumors) • Symptoms can • Amenorrhea is an absence of menstrual periods include pain during intercourse, abdominal swelling, urinary Endometriosis occurs when parts of endometrium • Primary amenorrhea is a failure to start menstruating implant on organs outside the uterus or in the pelvic cavity by age 16 • This can be caused by hormone imbalance, retention or vaginal bleeding • Small cysts may not require• Tissue reacts to hormones, and thickens and sloughs genetic disorders, reproductive organ deformities, brain treatment; large ones can be drained laparoscopically or during menstruation • Adhesions and cysts can develop, lesions or being severely under/overweight • Treatment reduced with oral contraceptives causing great pain • Symptoms include heavy periods and involves hormone therapy • Secondary amenorrhea Fibroids painful intercourse or defecation • It may be caused by refers to someone who has had normal periods, but has menstrual tissue traveling up the fallopian tubes instead of not menstruated for 6 or more months • It is caused by • Fibroids are benign tumors within uterus, consisting of out of the body, which may be encouraged by use of pregnancy, sudden weight loss, emotional factors, ovarian smooth muscle and connective tissue • They are common, tampons • Treatment involves hormone therapy, surgical or pituitary tumors, athletic training, illness or menopausend calcify after menopause • They can be asymptomatic, removal of tissue or, in severe cases, total hysterectomy • Underlying cause is treated; can use hormone therapy or can cause pelvic pain and pressure, heavy periods, abnormal bleeding, constipation or frequent urination Cystocele Dysmenorrhea • They only occur in pre-menopausal women • Tumors • A cystocele is protrusion of the bladder into vagina due • Dysmenorrhea is painful menstruation • Primary can be removed surgically; in severe cases, hysterectomy to weakness in anterior vaginal wall • Weakness is often dysmenorrhea occurs in absence of a pathological may be required caused by trauma in pregnancy & delivery • Symptoms condition, usually within 3 years of onset of menstruation include frequent urination, stress incontinence (leaking   • It is thought to be due to high levels of prostaglandins, urine due to sneezing, coughing or lifting), and inability to so prostaglandin-inhibiting drugs (ibuprofen) are effective completely empty bladder, which may cause infection and • Oral contraceptives may be used • Secondary  painful urination • Kegel exercises can help to strengthen dysmenorrhea is usually caused by an underlying disorder pelvic floor muscles • Surgery may be necessary (e.g., endometriosis, cervical stenosis, pelvic infections)  Rectocele • Treatment is of the underlying disorder  Ovarian cysts  • A rectocele is protrusion of the rectum into the vagina  due to weakness in the posterior vaginal wall, and may be • Functional ovarian cysts occur when a follicle grows present along with a cystocele • Again, this weakness is but does not release an egg • The fluid within the follicle is often caused by trauma during pregnancy and delivery, and retained and a cyst forms • These cysts should not be Endometriosis can be treated with Kegel exercises or surgery  Uterus  Endometrial tissue  Adhesions  Vagina • Symptoms include fecal incontinence and constipation ©1999-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. www.permach a rt s .co m permacharts TM FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE DISORDERS (CONT’D) Uterine Prolapse Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS) • Cervical cancer is most common in women aged 30 to 50 • It can be diagnosed with a Pap smear • Symptoms • Uterine prolapse is a downward displacement of uterus • TSS is a systemic disease caused by an increase in include watery, bloody discharge and abnormal bleeding • In first degree prolapse, uterus is still well inside vaginastaphylococcal toxin
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