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Reference Guide

Cardiovascular Physiology - Reference Guides

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ANAT - Anatomy
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permacharts TM Cardiovascular Physiology 2nd EDITION HEART STRUCTURE & FUNCTION MICROCIRCULATION • There are four chambers of the heart: the two upper atria and he two lower ventricles • The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the body and  then the right ventricle pumps this blood to the lungs to be oxygenated • The newly-oxygenated blood travels to the left atrium and the left ventricle pumps it to the body • The heart and the blood vessels comprise the cardiovascular system • This system circulates blood throughout the body, providing tissues  with nutrients while removing metabolic waste products         FIGURE 2: DETAIL OF CAPILLARY NETWORK  Vein  Artery  Venule  Arteriole   Capillaries  Precapillary sphincter muscle   • Muscles regulate the flow of blood through capillaries     HEART VALVES  FIGURE 3: SEMILUNAR VALVES   • The semilunar valve at the  entrance of the pulmonary trunk is called the pulmonary valve  • The semilunar valve at the  entrance of the aorta is called the aortic valve   FIGURE 4: ATRIOVENTRICULAR VALVES FIGURE 1: INTERIOR OF HEART (SHOWING BLOOD FLOW) • Blue arrows indicate the flow of deoxygenated blood; pink arrows indicate the flow of oxygenated blood  Superior vena cava  Muscular interventricular • The valve between the right atrium and ventricle is called  Right pulmonary artery septum the tricuspid valve, due to its  Right pulmonary veins  Left ventricle three cusps  Pulmonary valve  Mitral valve  Aortic valve • The valve between the left  Right atrium atrium and ventricle has two  Tricuspid valve  Left pulmonary veins cusps (as shown here) and is  Chordae tendineae  Left atrium referred to as the bicuspid  Left pulmonary artery (mitral) valve  Inferior vena cava  Papillary muscles  Aorta  Right ventricle 1 CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY • 1-55080-578-9 w w w . p e r m a c h a r t s . c o m © 2001-2014 Mindsource Technologies Inc. permacharts CARDIAC ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION FIGURE 5: CONDUCTION SYSTEM OF THE HEART  Sinoatrial (SA) node  Right bundle branch  Atrioventricular (AV) node  Left bundle branch   Atrioventricular bundle (of Purkinje fibers • The sinoatrial (SA) node is the heart’s natural pacemaker • It contains autorhythmic cells that generate electrical impulses, which spread through and depolarize the atria, triggering contraction of atrial myocardium and stimulating the  atrioventricular (AV) node • The AV node is continuous with the atrioventricular bundle (bundle of is), which transmits impulses to the left and right bundle branches and finally to the Purkinje fibers, causing the  depolarization and contraction of the ventricles   ELECTROCARDIOGRAM (ECG) FIGURE 6: ELECTROCARDIOGRAM (ECG)  • Yellow areas denote depolarization; red areas denote repolarization • Horizontal axis = time; vertical axis = voltage • The ECG traces the course of the cardiac impulse by recording variation in electrical potential on the surface of the body • The P wave represents atrial depolarization, the QRS complex represents ventricular depolarization and atrial repolarization, and the T wave represents ventricular repolarization • The first part of the atria to depolarize is the first to repolarize; the first part of the ventricles to depolarize is the last to repolarize  R  P Q S   R P P Q S QRS complex   P P wave T wave 2 CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY • 1-55080-578-w © 2001-2014 Mindsource Technologies Inc. permachartsTM CARDIAC CYCLE CARDIAC OUTPUT FIGURE 7: CARDIAC CYCLE • Cardiac output (CO) is the rate at which blood is ejected from the left ventricle • The cardiac cycle refers to the events that occur during • It is determined by stroke volume (SV), which is measured in a complete heartbeat, including contraction (systole) and volume of blood pumped per beat, and heart rate (HR), which relaxation (diastole) of the atria and ventricles • In a normal cardiac cycle, the two atria contract simultaneously is measured in heartbeats per minute while the ventricles relax CO (mL/min) = SV (mL/beat) × HR (beats/min) • Then, as the atria relax, the two ventricles contract • All four chambers remain relaxed and then the cycle is repeated FACTORS THAT REGULATE SV • A complete cycle takes about 0.8 seconds when the heart is Preload beating 75 times per minute • SV is determined by the force of ventricular contraction, • When listening to a heartbeat, the first sound is referred to as which is directly related to the amount of venous blood in the systolic, and is caused by the contraction of the ventricles and heart closing of the AV valves • End diastolic volume (EDV) is the volume of blood that enters a • The second (diastolic) sound is caused by vibrations of the ventricle during diastole closing semilunar valves • Increases with venous pressure and longer ventricular diastole Starling’s law of the heart: Increased length of cardiac muscle fibers intensifies force of ventricular contraction All valves Contractility are closed, • Force by which individual cardiac muscle fibers contract l ventricular t pressure falls • Force of contraction Increases with positive inotropic agents a (digitalis, glucagon) and decreases with negative inotropic D agents (K +in the extracellular fluid) r d Afterload u n i c • Pressure that ventricles must overco
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