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Reference Guide

Cellular Anatomy - Reference Guides

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City College of San Francisco
ANAT - Anatomy

p e rm ac h a rts MT Cellular Anatomy Cellular Anatomy 2nd EDITION Generalized Animal Cell & Organelles Detail 1: Plasma membrane (lipid bilayer) • Controls exchange of materials between Glycoprotein Detail 2: Cytoskeleton inside and outside of cell • Regulates Integral membrane protein • Provides structural organization to the cell cell’s chemical composition Glycolipid • Supports organelles and allows their movement Microtubule Surface membrane protein Hydrophilic Polysome rgion M icrotrabecular Hydrophobic strand Phospholipid region Peripheral protein regionhilic Microfilament Cholesterol Transmembrane Mitochondrion channel protein Plasma membrane Nucleus Lysosome Golgi saccule • Contains hydrolytic enzymes that the cell uses to digest • Contains chromosomal DNA Plasma macromolecules, bacteria, viruses, and disabled organelles packaged into chromatin fibers membrane • Controls cellular activitydity Microtubules •Serve as “tracks” on which vesicles and other organelles move around within the Nuclear envelope cell • Shape and support the cell itself • Double phospholipid bilayer m embrane that segregates contents Centrosome of nucleus fromcytoplasm •Microtubule organizing center Nuclear pore Centrioles • Special permeable sites in •Organelles containing nine triplet nuclear envelope that allow bundles of microtubules specific macromolecules to pass • Important role in cell division between nucleus and cytoplasm Cytosol • Each pore is bounded by eight protein particles • Gel-like intracellular fluid where many of cell’s chemical reactions occur Peroxisome Golgi apparatus • Arises in the cytosol • Modifies, distributes, and fromlipids and proteins packages secretory • Contains enzymes products that create hydrogen • Distributes and peroxide that is used for recycles cellular fat breakdown, membrane detoxification, and other metabolic processes Secretory granule Nucleolus Maturing face of • Site where Golgi apparatus ribosomal RNA is assembled, processed, Forming face of and packaged with Golgi apparatus proteins into ribosomal subunits Transfer vesicle Mitochondrion Free ribosomes • Scattered throughout • Power plant of the cell cytosol • Composed • Provides energy in the of two subunits formof ATP through • Synthesize proteins oxidative phosphorylation that function within Matrix space cytosol Outer & inner Bound ribosome membrane of • Attached to the RER mitochondrion membrane • Composed of two Cristae subunits • Synthesize proteins in the cytoplasm destined for secretion Cilia Rough endoplasmic • Microtubular structure reticulum (RER) which grows fromthe basal • Segregation, modification, body • Used for locomotion and transport of proteins and • Enzymatic activity of dynein lysosomal enzymes (protein) releases the energy • Membrane studded with fromATP required for motility ribosomes • Flagella have same ultrastructure as cilia, but Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) Basal body of cilium Cross section of cilium, they are longer, there is • Area of lipid synthesis and carbohydrate • Identical in structure showing 9 + 2 arrangement usually only one per cell, metabolism• Role in detoxification of drugs to a centriole of microtubules with dynein and they use more of an and other poisons • No ribosomes arms undulating motion w w © 1999-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. permacharts TM Generalized Plant Cell & Organelles Cell wall Chromoplast • Provides cell with structural support and protection • Plast
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