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Reference Guide

Cellular Biology - Reference Guides

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l e a r n • r e f e r e n c e • r e v i e w permacharts TM CCellular Biology BIOLOGY BASICS CELL BIOLOGY • Biology: An interdisciplinary science of living systems EUKARYOTIC CELL • Requires knowledge of physical sciences and math • Basic living unit that has capacity to maintain itself and • Humanity and environment have been affected by food additives, drugs, insecticides, radiation, population control, and genetic reproduce, given proper sources of energy and raw materials engineering membrane polar head protein nuclear pore • Proportion of essentials is critical to survival complex lipid tail BASIS OF LIFE nuclear pore Essentials Carbon • Oxygen • Hydrogen • Nitrogen Golgi apparatus • Phosphorus • Sulfur nucleus ctosol Characteristics Metabolism • Growth • Reproduction • Response to stimuli • Movement nucleolus nuclear envelope plasma membrane KINGDOMS OF LIFE smooth ER mitochondrion Kingdom Monera Bacteria • Single-celled; no nucleus cytoskeleton • Prokaryotic (no nuclear membrane or m icrotubules membrane-bound organelles) in flagellum Kingdom Protista Single-celled; distinct nuclei • Motile; rough endoplasmic simple nervous system reticulum (ER) Kingdom Fungi Non-motile; no chloroplasts • Absorb nutrients; chitin cell wall RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY Kingdom Plantae Produce nutrients by photosynthesis Viruses Segments of DNA or RNA that use chromosomal Kingdom Digest food from other organisms machinery of other cells to reproduce; when Animalia outside cells; absorb product dormant, they surround themselves with a protective protein coat LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION Plasmids Circular DNA pieces that can replicate independently Biochemical Taxonomic • Life is divided into many of the chromosome; found in bacteria • Enzymes levels of organization which cut DNA at specific sequences (restriction Organisms Kingdom endonucleases) are used to open plasmids and ≠ ≠ • The basic disciplines of insert DNA fragments • Modified plasmid is inserted Systems Division biology study life at one or into host cell; when it reproduces, so does the ≠ ≠ more of these levels plasmid, and inserted DNA is cloned Organs Class ≠ ≠ DISEASE MECHANISMS Tissue Order PROKARYOTIC CELLS ≠ ≠ • Disease propagation in Cells Family human populations occurs by Bacteria Common name for vast group of single-celled, ≠ ≠ disease mechanism(s) microscopic organisms that encompasses smallest, Organelles Genus simplest, and (what may have been) first form of ≠ ≠ Mechanisms : cell life that evolved (see Kingdom Monera) Macromolecules Species • Malnutrition ≠ • Prokaryotic (such as no nucleus or other Small Molecules Ecological • Genetic membrane-bound organelles in cytoplasm) • Single ≠ • Inflammation chromosome (circular DNA molecule); many species Ecosystems • Pathogenic organisms have plasmids • Most cell walls are composed of Atoms ≠ peptidoglycan • Most reproduce by binary fission ≠ Communities • Physical and chemical agents • Prokaryotes lack histones, cytoplasmic streaming, Atomic Particles ≠ • Auto-immunity membrane-bound organelles, complex 9-plus-2- Populations • Degeneration flagella, and microtubules; cell DNA exists as a double strand • Cancer ERAS OF THE EARTH • Geological history is divided into 4 eons Note: bya: billon years ago • mya: million years ago 1 Hadean (4.5 bya) • Archean (3.8 bya [prokaryotic life]) • and Proterozoic 3 Mesozoic era = 245–65 mya (4% of geologic time); (2.5 bya [first eukaryotes, animals]) equal 87% of geologic time; recent periods include: Cretaceous (138 mya [dinosaurs (Phanerozoic) has 3 eras and 11 periods extinct; plants and diatoms emerge]), Jurassic (145 mya [birds & flying reptiles appear]) and Triassic 2 Paleozoic era = 600 to 245 mya (8% of geologic time); periods include: (245 mya [giant reptiles, mammals]) Permian (290 mya [Pangaea forms; mass extinction]) • Carboniferous (345 mya [first reptiles]) • Devonian (400 mya [first insects, amphibians; 4 Cenozoic era = 66 million years (1.5% of geologic mass extinction]), Silurian (440 mya [first bony fishes; plants & animals go time); periods include: Quaternary (2 mya on land]) • Ordovician (500 mya [first jawless fishes; ends in mass [appearance of humans]) and Tertiary (66 mya extinction]) • Cambrian (600 mya [animal phyla present; many algae]) [appearance of primates]) 1 CELLULAR BIOLOGY • A-802-8 w © 1997-2013 Mindsource Technologies Inc. l e a r n • r e f e r e n c e • r e v i e w permachartsTM CELL BIOLOGY CONTINUED PLASMA MEMBRANE E LECTROCHEMICAL GRADIENT & TRANSPORT PROTEINS • Regulates exchange of materials between cytoplasm and • Electrochemical gradient is kept • Transport proteins are allosteric extracellular environment; characteristic of animal cells due to more negative charge • Interaction changes shape of inside membrane • Bilipid layer consists of hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails protein transported molecule CELLULAR TRANSPORT transported cotransported tansportlecule m olecule lyer protein Endocytosis Engulfing of either solid materials through eer level phagocytosis or liquid materials through pinocytosis simplefaciliatedtive chemical diffusidiffusionransportgradient uniportsymport antiport Exocytosis Expelling of materials from within cell passive transport sstem cotransport system Osmosis Diffusion of liquid across semi-permeable membrane CELLULAR REPRODUCTION COMPARING TYPES OF REPRODUCTION SEXUAL REPRODUCTION • Meiosis in germ cells occurs in • When sperm and egg nuclei Mitosis Number of chromosomes maintained in cell • Normally no pairing of homologues • Centromeres divide at 2 stages fuse at fertilization, diploid anaphase • One premeiotic S phase per cell division • Gametes end up with haploid number is restored • Normally no crossover number of chromosomes • Diploid number for humans is 46 Meiosis Number of chromosomes halved in the cells • Synapsis of homologues at prophase I • One premeiotic S phase Prophase I Prophase I Chromosome pairs for both cell divisions • At least one crossover per zygotene pachytene with homologues; non-sister chromatids homologous pair • Centromeres do not divide at anaphase I; divide at anaphase II leptotene cross over, envelope breaks down, spindle diplotene forms CELL LIFE CYCLE Metaphase I Homologues align at G1: Gap 1 G2: Gap 2 Metaphase I spindle equator S: DNA synthesis and duplication Anaphase I Homologues separate Interphase: Time between mitosis Telophase I Cell divides Anaphase I • Telophase I, interphase, and Prophase II DNA not copied cytokinesis may or may not occur • Sister chromatids during first meiotic sequence Telophase I attach at centromere Metaphase II Each chromosome Note: Cytokinesis involves division of organelles among daughter aligns at spindle Metaphase II cells; begins during anaphase (cell wall or pinched membrane equator completes division) Anaphase II Chromosomes split, Anaphase II move to opposite Human Somatic Cell Human Germ Cell poles • Sister chromatids are now unduplicated 46 Telophase II chromosomes 46 chromosome mitosis chromosome # meiosis I 46 Telophase II Four daughter nuclei occurs here meiosis II form; haploid number 46 chromosome 23 23 of chromosomes are 46 46 unduplicated 23 23 23 23 in unduplicated state chromosome gametes ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION MITOSIS Fission Prokaryotes Prophase Nucleolus disappears, Early Mid Late • DNA is copied; chromatin supercoils to Prophase Prophase Prophase attached to part form chromosomes of of plasma two identical membrane, cell chromatids, and elongates, pulled spindle appears apart, and cell Metaphase Chromosome splits in two equatorial alignment Mitosis Unicellular Anaphase Chromosomes separate eukaryotes to poles • Forms spores and buds Telophase Chromosomes uncoil, nuclear membrane and Regeneration Pieces cut from organism grow nucleolia form, and cells break into two into individuals new cells Parthenogenesis Offspring develop Telophase Anaphase Metaphase from unfertilized Cell Cycle of Cultured Eukaryotic Cell eggs M phase (58 min) = Prophase (35) + Meta
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