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Reference Guide

Immunology - Reference Guides

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permacharts TM IImmunology 2nd EDITION G ENERAL INFORMATION - AN OVERVIEW INNATE (NONSPECIFIC) IMMUNITY • The immune system is a defense mechanism of the body • Innate immunity has seven main protective mechanisms that characterized by the recognition of nonself in the protection function without prior exposure to a harmful agent of the body from microorganisms and other harmful substances Antimicrobial Such as interferon (inhibits viral replication) and • The two main components are innate (nonspecific) Substances complement proteins (promote bacterial immunity and adaptive (specific) immunity destruction and other effects of inflammation) Fever Produced by endogenous pyrogens secreted by • Innate immunity is a general natural defense against anything leukocytes and other cells, and serves to intensify recognized as nonself the action of interferon, inhibit microbial growth, • It is present (in normal individuals) at all times and triggered and enhance tissue repair as soon as the foreign agent presents itself • Adaptive immunity is the response of lymphocytes to foreign Gastric Acid Destroys swallowed invaders substances (called antigens, from antibody generating) and Inflammatory Mobilizes leukocytes to phagocytose invaders Response includes development of immunological memory • Adaptive immunity consists of two responses against foreign Intact Skin Prevents attachment of potential invaders antigen: the humoral response (defined by secretion of Mucous Traps bacteria and other foreign material antibody by B cells) and the cell-mediated response (which Natural Killer Destroy a variety of microbes and certain tumor involves the attacking and killing of infected somatic cells directly by T cells) Cells cells through direct contact THE CELLS Dendritic Cells Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs) found in T cell area of lymphoid CD4 T-cells Bear the CD4 marker tissues • Particularly important for initiation of the adaptive immune and respond to MHC II response molecules • There are Macrophages Phagocytic cells derived from two types: Th1 cells blood monocytes • Contain (inflammatory T cells) lysosomes, which digest that activate infected pathogens • Act as APCs, macrophages to destroy alerting lymphocytes of specific intracellular pathogens, foreign antigens by displaying and T h cells (helper T cells) that stimulate B pieces of partially digested antigen cells of the same on their surface • Express MHC I antigenic specificity to and MHC II molecules differentiate into B Cells Lymphocytes that mature antibody-secreting in the bone marrow and play a key role in humoral plasma cells or memory immunity • After being B cells presented with a foreign Cytotoxic T-cells Bear the CD8 marker antigen, the B cell differentiates and respond to MHC I molecules • Kill infected into either antibody-secreting cells either by releasing plasma cells or memory B cells perforin (a protein that to be activated when the same punches holes in antigen is encountered again infected cells’ (secondary immune response) Plasma Cells Cells that differentiate from membranes) or binding B cells and secrete to a receptor on the large amounts of antibodies infected cell to initiate (up to 2000 per second) apoptosis (cell suicide) • Important in defense • All cells in a clone of plasma against cytosolic cells secrete identical antibodies pathogens because they are descended Memory T-cells T cells that are produced from the same B cell but not used in a first T Cells Lymphocytes which mature in the thymus and act in immune response humoral and cell-mediated • They circulate and are immunity • After being ready to respond to presented with a foreign antigen, subsequent attacks by T cells differentiate into effector the same type of invader Suppressor T-cells Suppress the activity of cells that are able to destroy other T cells that are infected cells or activate other capable of causing cells of the immune system tissue damage 1 IMMUNOLOGY • 1-55080-832-X w w w. permachar ts. com © 1999-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. permacharts T HE INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE C LONAL SELECTION THEORY • The object of the inflammatory response is to provide an immediate, nonspecific response and keep the pathogen at bay while the specific, adaptive immune response is mounted   Tissue damage, accompanied by invasion of pathogen  Macrophages ingest pathogen and are stimulated to release cytokines  Cytokines cause vasodilation, which  leads to increase in  vascular permeability and decrease in  velocity of blood flow (causes heat and redness)  • Increases in flow allow local infiltration of phagocytic cells and leads to local   accumulation of fluid (causes swelling and pain)   Cytokines also cause leukocytes to stick to vessel walls and  A single progenitor cell produces a large number of migrate between the lymphocytes, each with a different antigenic specificity endothelial cells to   All potentially self-reactive lymphocytes are removed from the the site of infection  Invading pathogens lymphocyte pool by clonal deletion and damaged tissue  Self-tolerant lymphocytes become mature, naive lymphocytes are phagocytosed to that are able to recognize foreign antigen  When a mature lymphocyte encounters foreign antigen, it is clean up the infected area activated to proliferate and form a clonal population of effector cells (“self” antigen is indicated in yellow, “foreign” antigen in blue) ANTIBODIES • Antibodies are a class of proteins called immunoglobulins (Igs) produced by   IgA Occurs mostly in the form of plasma cells   a dimer, and • They bind to specific antigens, tagging is found in many the bearer of that antigen for destruction body secretions, • Antibodies are most effective against free   such as tears, saliva, sweat, floating pathogens in the blood and and breast milk lymph, like viruses and bacteria  Antigen binding site (which helps  Variable region (in red) protect infants from gastrointestinal  Light chain   infections)  Heavy chain IgD Found mostly on the IgE Causes mast cells  Disulfide bond surfaces of B cells, but its and basophils to function is currently release histamine IgG The most abundant type of antibody, unknown upon being triggered easily crossing vessel walls and by antigen protecting against bacteria, viruses, and toxins in the blood • Also crosses the placenta to give passive immunity to the fetus IgM Is the first circulating antibody to appear upon exposure to antigen • Consists of five Y-shaped monomers (a pentamer) with numerous antigen binding sites • Presence indicates current infection 2 IMMUNOLOGY • 1-55080-832-X w w w. p e r m a c h a r t s . c o m © 1999-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. permachartsM T HE COMPLEMENT SYSTEM • About 20 complement proteins circulate Classical Pathway MBLectin Pathway Alternative Pathway inactively in the blood, and are • Antibody-antigen • MBLectin binds mannose • Complement proteins activated in a cascade, one activating the next complexes are formed on pathogen surface attach to pathogen • Involves C1q, C1r, C1s, • Involves MBL, MASP-1, surface • The proteins are designated with a C C4, C2 MASP-2, C4, C2 • Involves C3, Factor B, (for complement) followed by a
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