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Reference Guide

Lymphatic System - Reference Guides

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Department
ANAT - Anatomy
Course Code
ANAT 14
Professor
All

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TM
permacharts
Lymphatic System
Lymphatic System
Figure 1: Overview of Lymphatic System Figure 1: Overview of
Lymphatic System
• The lymphatic system is an
extensive network throughout the
body, and there are many more
nodes and vessels than are
depicted on this chart, particularly
on the organs and extremities
The groups of nodes represented
on this chart are found in
consistent places in the body,
but the exact number and
placement varies The groups
indicated here are thought to be
of greatest clinical importance
1
Parotid nodes
2
Tonsil
3
Cervical nodes
4
Supraclavicular nodes
5
Right lymphatic duct
6
Subclavian (apical axillary)
nodes
7
Right upper quadrant
(shaded area)
8
Thymus gland
9
Central axillary nodes
10
Subscapular nodes
11
Thoracic duct
12
Posterior mediastinal nodes
13
Spleen
14
Superficial cubital nodes
15
Cisterna chyli
16
Iliac nodes
17
Superficial inguinal nodes
Figure 2: Lymphatic Capillary
• The basic structure of
lymphatic vessels is very similar
to veins, except the lymphatic
vessels have more valves and are
more permeable due to the
openings found between the
thin endothelial cells
1
Closed valve
2
Open valve
3
Endothelial cell
4
Nucleus
Figure 3: Cross Section of
Lymph Node
• Lymph nodes are found in
clusters along lymphatic vessels
• Several afferent lymphatic
vessels carry lymph to a node,
but only one efferent vessel
leaves it Lymph flow is slowed
as it travels through a node,
allowing time for cells to
phagocytose microorganisms
• Lymph nodes are also the site
of maturation for some
lymphocytes and monocytes
1
Afferent lymphatic vessels
2
Trabeculae
3
Capsule
4
Medullary cords
5
Hilus
6
Valve
7
Efferent lymphatic vessel
8
Vein
9
Artery
10
Subcapsular sinus
11
Lymphoid follicles
12
Cortical nodule
13
Germinal center
14
Medullary sinus
Figure 4: Thymus Gland
• The thymus plays an
important role in the immune
system • It is the final location of
lymphocyte maturation prior to
birth, and it secretes hormones
that cause maturation of T cells
soon after birth • It reaches its
largest size at puberty, after
which it gradually atrophies and
may be replaced by fat
1
Right subclavian vein
2
Right lymphatic duct
3
Subclavian trunk
4
Jugular trunk
5
Right internal jugular vein
6
Thoracic duct
7
Left internal jugular vein
8
Left subclavian vein
9
Thymus gland
10
Pericardium
5
1
2
7
9
11
15
12
16
17
3
4
6
13
14
8
10
• The lymphatic system consists of lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes,
isolated tissue in the intestinal wall known as Peyer’s patches, and
lymphatic organs like tonsils, the thymus gland, and the spleen
• Together, these structures play an important role in the immunologic
response and in maintaining fluid balance in the body by working with
the circulatory system
• Blood vessels allow some plasma from the blood to filter through to the
tissue cells When too much interstitial fluid accumulates, the lymphatic
vessels collect it • The fluid, known as lymph, is filtered and returned to
the circulatory system via the subclavian veins • Lymph from the upper
right quadrant drains into the right lymphatic duct and into the right
subclavian vein Lymph from the rest of the body drains into the
thoracic duct and then into the left subclavian vein
• The thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow are the locations
of lymphocyte maturation • Once developed, mature lymphocytes
continuously cycle through the bloodstream, through tissue cells, and
lymphatic vessels During their circulation around the body, lymphocytes
search out and destroy foreign invaders
Direction of
lymph flow
Interstitial fluid entering
lymphatic capillary
4
12
3
3
2
4
7
11
10
9
8
14
12
13
6
5
1
9
10
6
8
4
3
7
6
1
5
4
3
2
Figure 2: Lymphatic Capillary
Figure 3: Cross Section of Lymph Node
Figure 4: Thymus Gland
2nd EDITION
© 2003-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc.
www.permacharts.com

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Description
p e rm a ch a rts MT LL yymphatic System 2nd EDITION Figure 1: Overview of Lymphatic System Figure 2: Lymphatic Capillary Figure 1: Overview of Lmphatic System 1 2 • The lymphatic systemis an extensivenetworkthroughout the body, and there are many more nodes and vessels than are on the organs and extremitieslarly 3 •Thegroupsofnodesrepresented on this chart are found in 1 consistent places in the body, but the exact number and 2 placement varies • The groups indicated here are thought to be 3 of greatest clinical importance 5 4 Direction of 1 Parotid nodes 6 lymph flow 2 Tonsil 7 3 Cervical nodes 8 5 Right lymphatic ducts 6 Subclavian (apical axillary) 9 n odes 4 7 Right upper quadrant (shaded area) Interstitial fluid entering 8 Thymus gland 10 lymphatic capillary 9 Central axillary nodes 10Subscapular nodes Figure 3: Cross Section of Lymph Node 11Thoracic duct 12Posterior mediastinal nodes 11 1 2 3 13Spleen 15Cisterna chylibital nodes 12 16Iliac nodes 17Superficial inguinal nodes 13 14 4 Figure 2: Lymphatic Capillary 15 14 lymphatic vessels is very similar to veins, except the lymphatic 13 vessels have more valves and are more permeable due to the 16 openings found between the thin endothelial cells 1 Closed valve 12 2 Open valve 3 Endothelial cell 17 4 Nucleus Figure 3: Cross Section of Lymph Node • Lymph nodes are found in 11 clusters along lymphatic vessels • Several afferent lymphatic 5 vessels carry lymph to a node, leaves it • Lymph flow is slowed as it travels through a node, 6 allowing time for cells to 10 phagocytose microorganisms 9 • Lymph nodes are also the site Figure 4: Thymus Gland 7 of maturation for some 8 lymphocytes and monocytes 5 6 7 1 Afferent lymphatic vessels 4 4 2 Trabeculae 3 Capsule 3 3 4 Medullary cords 6 Valve 2 6 7 Efferent lymphatic vessel
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