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Reference Guide

Nursing Theorists - Reference Guides

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permacharts TM Nursing Theorists 2nd EDITION NURSING THEORY • A theory is a set of interrelated concepts that and the environment can be scientifically proposes a means to view a particular aspect of the systematized world • Nurses can practice consistently (i.e., according to • It is logical and provides a platform on which the functional guidelines implicit in the theory) hypotheses can be tested • In this way, nursing can be practiced reliably and • Theory also provides a scaffold upon which research consistently, across nursing centers, at any one can be based (i.e., the theory can be tested) time • Theory is not static, but evolutionary; over time, • The consideration and development of theories can be modified as needed nursing theory allows nurses and nurse- • Articulating theoretical frameworks for nursing is scientists working within this field of study necessary because they provide a mechanism by to assist people in achieving their maximal which complex interrelationships between humanity health potential, which is the goal of nursing IMOGENE KING INTERACTING SYSTEMS FRAMEWORK ITERPERSONAL SYSTEMS SOCIAL SYSTEMS • This model describes three open, dynamic, • Interaction of two or more • Units of social roles, behavior, and and interacting systems, each built around a individuals practices established so that values series of concepts and the mechanisms to regulate the Interactions • Verbal and non-verbal behaviors practices and rules are maintained PERSONAL SYSTEMS between two or more persons in Organization • The individual is a sentient, rational, and social mutual company • People with defined roles coordinate Communication themselves and available resources entity who processes inputs from the to accomplish personal or environment via the senses • Intrapersonal, interpersonal, verbal, occupational goals Perception and non-verbal modes of interaction • Processing of data gathered by the senses to that contribute to development of Authority define experience and establish reality of the human relationships • Transactional process characterized individual Transaction by active, reciprocal relations • Members’ values, backgrounds, and Self • Goal-directed human behaviors • Sentient and rational composite of who the involving the communication with perceptions play a role in defining, person feels and perceives himself/herself to be the environment validating, and accepting the Body Image Role authority of individuals within an • Behaviors defined by position in a organization • Perceptions of the body Power Growth & Development social setting • The influence of individuals over • Biological development and personal or Stress others behavioral development • A dynamic state where humans exchange energy and information Status • These changes depend on the genetic with the environment to control • The position of the individual or composition of the individual, their stressors and maintain balance group in relation to other individuals environment, and their experience through or groups time needed for growth and development Space Decision-making THE GOAL OF NURSING • Individuals or groups choose • Territory of an individual • Achieve benefit in personal systems, available alternatives towards • Exists in all directions achieving a specific goal or Time interpersonal systems, and social answering a specific question systems according to theory • The duration between experiences and events THEORY OF GOAL ATTAINMENT • The meeting of personal systems is achieved • Exploration of personal systems through • This process will initiate the necessary through interpersonal systems interpersonal systems to achieve goals set positive change within whichever system following the establishment of an had an identified deficit understanding of the needs of each personal system involved in the exchange peak high-level wellness good normal poor extremely poor health death 1 NURSINGTHEORISTS • 1-55080-558-4 www.permacharts .com © 2002-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. permachartsTM DOROTHY JOHNSON BETTY NEUMAN • The person is a behavioral system that is made HEALTH CARE SYSTEMS MODEL up of seven subsystems The Individual • Subsystems have specific functions that are • A whole, comprised of physiological, psychological, sociocultural, and necessary to maintain the integrity (survival) of the overall behavioral system developmental variables • It cannot be deconstructed and considered in terms of the individual parts SYBSYSTEM STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS • This whole is an open system interacting with its environment, trying to set a balance and harmony between internal and external environments Drive or Goal • Promotion of the behavior STRESSORS ACTING ON THE INDIVIDUAL • The goal of each subsystem cannot be seen directly Intrapersonal: From within • Each one must be deduced from the Interpersonal: Between individuals individual’s behavior and the consequences of Extrapersonal: External to the individual that behavior • In coping with stressors, the individual has a line of defense that is the sum of all Set variables affecting the individual at one time • Predisposition of the individual to act in Examples: Age, sex, health, wellness certain methods as opposed to others to fulfill the function of the subsystem THE GOAL OF NURSING Choice • An individual’s complete behavior repertoire • When stressors exceed capabilities of the individual’s line of defense, intervene and foster restoration of balance and harmony for meeting subsystem functions Action / Behavior • Actual behavior in a situation; it is the only Primary Care Secondary Care Tertiary Care element that can be directly observed • Preventative • Reactive • Restorative • Anticipate and reduce • Restore equilibrium to • Accompany restoration Subsystem Functional Requirements • Protection from harmful or noxious influences potential stress factors, line of defense after it of equilibrium and and strengthen line of has been disrupted eventually lead back to • Nurturing defense primary care to prevent • Stimulation to promote growth and offset the recurrence of a stagnation particular stressor- borne event SUBSYSTEMS Attachment (Affiliative) Subsystem • Attainment of security as required for survival, social inclusion, and intimacy • Creation and support of strong social bonds SISTER CALLISTA ROY Dependency Subsystem ADAPTATIONS MODEL • Mediates behavior that calls for a response of nurturance, approval, attention, recognition, • The individual exists in an environment that presents stressors of stimuli to and physical assistance which he/she must adapt Ingestive Subsystem • This includes the collective effect of stimuli and stressor forces • Eating and control eating Eliminative Subsystem CLASSES OF STIMULI COPING MECHANISMS • Excretion of wastes Focal • The ultimate goals of coping are • Learned control of these functions survival, growth, reproduction, • A specific stimulus that challenges Sexual Subsystem the individual and emotion • Procreation and gratification Contextual Regulator Mechanisms • A broad range of behaviors dependent on • Chemical and biological processes • All of the stimuli confronting the biological sex individual at any one time (neurological, endocrine, and Example: Courting and mating Residual psychomotor) Aggressive Subsystem Cognator Mechanisms • Any additional factors relevant to • Psychological and emotive • Self-defense the individual at any one time • Preservation of self and society • The individual has a threshold of capabilities (psychosocial coping such that if the stimuli adaptation, information Achievement Subsystem require a magnitude of adaptation processing, learning, judgment, • Mastery or control of some aspect of self or of and emotion) the environment to accomplish tasks that exceeds this threshold, he/she • The coping mechanisms are Example: Physical, intellectual, caregiving cannot adapt in a positive or productive way and must be physiological, self-concept, role assisted to achieve coping function, and interdependence THE GOAL OF NURSING relations • Attain, restore or maintain balance of the behavioral system by regulating behavior of THE GOAL OF NURSING the subsystems • Change one or more of the structural • Identify the location of the individual on the health continuum and the nature elements of the focal, contextual, and residual stressors acting upon the individual • The nurse fosters adaptation in a positive direction along that continuum by • Accommodate for excesses or deficits in any of the functional requirements adjusting or maintaining the three stressors in order for the patient to cope with stressors using the repertoire of four coping mechanisms 2 NURSINGTHEORISTS • 1-55080-558-4 w w w . p e r m a c h a r t s . c o m © 2002-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. permachartsTM MARTHA E. ROGERS SCIENCE OF UNITARY MAN LIFE PROCESSES THE GOAL OF NURSING • The individual is an organized energy field that has a Complementarity • Strengthen the integrity of the unique pattern (fingerprint) individual by fostering • The energy fields of the • There is an exchange of energy between the person and individual and his/her repatterning of the energy field the environment environment must be perceived to secure the person- • This leads to development of the person physically, to co-exist and each exerts environment relationship biologically, psychologically, socially, culturally, and effects upon the other • This theory ackn
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