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Reference Guide

Skin - Reference Guides

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Department
ANAT - Anatomy
Course Code
ANAT 14
Professor
All

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TM
permacharts
Dermis
• Inner, thicker
connective tissue layer
of the skin • Composed
mostly of collagen
fibers, with some elastin
and reticular fibers
• Contains specialized
structures such as hair
follicles, sweat and
sebaceous glands, blood
vessels, nerves, and
lymphatic vessels
Pacinian corpuscle
• Nerve receptors found
in deep skin that respond
to deep pressure
• Mainly found in the
hands and feet
Subcutaneous layer
(hypodermis)
• Connective tissue layer
below the skin containing
a large amount of fat
• Carries the major blood
vessels and nerves to the
overlying skin
Deep fascia
• Membranous fascial
sheet separating the skin
and subcutaneous layer
from underlying muscle
and other structures
Arrector pili muscle
• Smooth muscle that elevates
hair upon contraction,
producing goosebumps
• Contraction is activated by
cold or fear
Figure 2: Cross Section of
Generic Skin Area
Figure 1: Layers of the Epidermis (Cross Section)
Epidermis
• Outer, thin layer of
the skin • Consists of
layers of stratified
squamous epithelium
• Lacks blood vessels
and has few nerve
endings • Thickness
varies on the body,
with thickest areas on
the soles and palms,
and thinnest on the
eyelids
Merkel’s discs
• Superficial nerve
endings that detect
light touch
Nociceptors
• Nerve fibers, ending in
dendritic knobs, that are
the primary sensory
receptors for pain
Meissner’s corpuscle
• Superficial, large receptors that respond to light touch and
low-frequency vibration • Found in nipples, lips, and fingertips
Ruffini’s corpuscles
• Flattened variation of
Meissner’s corpuscle found
deeper in the dermis • Sense
deep, persistent touch • May
also be heat receptors
Dermal papillae
• In thick skin, these are
arranged in curving
parallel ridges which form
fingerprints and footprints
Krause’s end bulbs
• Smaller variant of
Meissner’s corpuscle with
fewer endings, detecting
touch, vibration, and cold
• Often found in mucous
membranes
Sweat (sudoriferous)
gland
• The most numerous type
of skin gland • There are
two types: eccrine
(merocrine) and apocrine
• Eccrine sweat glands
are the most important,
producing transparent,
watery perspiration all
over the body which
lowers body temperature
and eliminates waste
• Apocrine sweat glands
become functional at
puberty, and produce a
milky, odorous secretion in
the axillary and genital
regions
Stratum corneum
• Outermost “horny layer” of thin squamous cells that are continuously shed and
replaced on the surface • The cytosol of these cells is replaced by
water-repelling keratin • Functions as a barrier to water loss and threats
from the environment
Stratum lucidum
“Clear layer” that is especially prominent in thick skin • Cell nuclei are
generally absent, and the cells are filled with a soft gel-like substance called
eleidin, which eventually becomes keratin
Stratum granulosum
• “Granular layer” where keratinization begins • Cell nuclei are either absent or
degenerate • This layer may be absent in thin skin
Stratum spinosum
• “Spiny layer” where protein synthesis occurs for keratin production
• This layer appears prickly under a microscope
Stratum basale
Single “base layer” of columnar cells where mitosis occurs • Cells migrate
from here to the upper layers and are eventually shed • Melanocytes, which are
cells that produce the pigment melanin, are found in this layer • Differences in
skin color are due to the amount of melanin produced, not the number of
melanocytes
Stratum germinativum
“Growth layer” referring to the stratum spinosum and stratum basale together
Arterioles, venules &
capillaries
• Supply blood to the skin
• Help regulate body
temperature by adjusting
blood flow to radiate excess
heat • Capillary dilation
causes blushing in face
Sebaceous gland
• Secretes oil (or sebum) to protect the hair and
skin from water loss and fungal infection • Usually
located along hair follicle • Sebum secretion
increases during puberty and may result in an
accumulation of oil, causing a pustule, or pimple
Muscle layer
Hair bulb
• Live tissue at the
base of the hair that
supplies the hair with
keratin
Hair follicle
• Tiny pit in the skin formed from
the invagination of surface
epithelium into the dermis, forming
a tube through which hair grows
• Hair is formed from keratinized
cells at the base of the follicle
Root hair plexus
• Free nerve endings
that detect hair
movement
Pore
• The skin (or integument) is the
largest organ in the body, and has
many functions, including
protection, sensation,
thermoregulation, and some
metabolic processes Different
areas of the body have different
functional characteristics, such as
thickness, color, and the presence
of epidermal appendages (hair,
glands, and nails)
• Skin is formed by two layers:
the epidermis and the dermis
• Most skin is classified as thin, but
skin of the palms and soles of the
feet is classified as thick • In thick
skin, the epidermis is thickened, but
not the dermis • Skin thickness
ranges from 0.5 mm to over 5 mm
The Skin
The Skin
2nd EDITION
© 1996-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc.
www.permacharts.com

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Description
p er m a ch a rts MT The Skin The Skin 2nd EDITION • The skin (or integument) is the Figure 1: Layers of the Epidermis (Cross Section) Stratum corneum • Outermost “horny layer” of thin squamous cells that are continuously shed and largest organ in the body, and has replaced on the surface • The cytosol of these cells is replaced by many functions, including water-repelling keratin • Functions as a barrier to water loss and threats protection, sensation, from the environment thermoregulation, and some metabolic processes • Different Stratum lucidum areas of the body have different • “Clear layer” that is especially prominent in thick skin • Cell nuclei are generally absent, and the cells are filled with a soft gel-like substance called functional characteristics, such as eleidin, which eventually becomes keratin thickness, color, and the presence Stratum granulosum of epidermal appendages (hair, • “Granular layer” where keratinization begins • Cell nuclei are either absent or glands, and nails) degenerate • This layer may be absent in thin skin Stratum spinosum • Skin is formed by two layers: • “Spiny layer” where protein synthesis occurs for keratin production the epidermis and the dermis • This layer appears prickly under a microscope • Most skin is classified as thin, but skin of the palms and soles of the Stratum basale • Single “base layer” of columnar cells where mitosis occurs • Cells migrate feet is classified as thick • In thick from here to the upper layers and are eventually shed • Melanocytes, which are skin, the epidermis is thickened, but cells that produce the pigment melanin, are found in this layer • Differences in not the dermis • Skin thickness skin color are due to the amount of melanin produced, not the number of ranges from 0.5 mm to over 5 mm m elanocytes Stratum germinativum • “Growth layer” referring to the stratum spinosum and stratum basale together M erkel’s discs Nociceptors • Superficial nerve • Nerve fibers, ending in endings that detect dendritic knobs, that are Pore Meissner’s corpuscle lght touch the primary sensory • Superficial, large receptors that respond to light touch and Figure 2: Cross Section of receptors for pain low-frequency vibration • Found in nipples, lips, and fingertips Generic Skin Area Dermal papillae Epidermis • In thick skin, these are • Outer, thin layer of arranged in curving the skin • Consists of parallel ridges which form layers of stratified fingerprints and footprints squamous epithelium • Lacks blood vessels and has few nerve Arterioles, venules & endings • Thickness capillaries varies on the body, • Supply blood to the skin with thickest areas on • Help regulate body the soles and palms, temperature by adjusting and thinnest on the blood flow to radiate excess eyelids heat • Capillary dilation causes blushing in face Dermis Krause’s end bulbs • Inner, thicker • Smaller variant of connective tissue layer Meissner’s corpuscle with mostly of collagenosed fewer endings, detecting fibers, with some elastin touch, vibration, and cold and reticular fibers • Often found in mucous • Contains specialized membranes structures such as hair follicles, sweat and sebaceous glands, blood gland (sudoriferous) vessels, nerves, and • The most numerous type lymphatic vessels of skin gland • There are two types: eccrine (merocrine) and apocrine Pacinian corpuscle • Eccrine sweat glands • Nerve receptors found are the most important, in deep skin that respond producing transparent, to deep pressure watery perspiration all • Mainly found in the over the body which hands and feet lowers body temperature and eliminates waste Subcutaneous layer • Apocrine sweat glands (hypodermis) become functional at • Connective tissue layer puberty, and produce a below the skin containing milky, odorous secretion in a large amount of fat the axillary and genital • Carries the major blood regions vessels and nerves to the overlying skin
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