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Reference Guide

Spinal Cord - Reference Guides

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Department
ANAT - Anatomy
Course Code
ANAT 14
Professor
All

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TM
permacharts
Spinal Cord
Spinal Cord
Figure 1: Spinal Cord
1
Cervical nerves (8 pairs)
2
Thoracic nerves (12 pairs)
3
Lumbar nerves (5 pairs)
4
Sacral nerves (5 pairs)
5
Coccygeal nerves (1 pair)
6
Cervical plexus
7
Brachial plexus
8
Spinal cord
9
Intercostal nerves
10
Conus medullaris
11
Cauda equina
12
Lumbar plexus
13
Sacral plexus
14
Sciatic nerve
Figure 2: Spinal Cord &
Sympathetic Trunk
1
Intervertebral disc
2
Vertebral body
3
White & gray Rami
communicantes
4
Spinal ganglion
5
Arachnoid
6
Gray matter
7
White matter
8
Filaments of ventral root
9
Pia mater
10
Dorsal primary ramus
11
Ventral primary ramus
(spinal nerve)
12
Dura mater
13
Sympathetic trunk
14
Sympathetic ganglion
Figure 3: Segmental
Innervation
• Each spinal nerve has both a
motor component (indicated in
red) and a sensory component
(indicated in blue) • The motor
fibers from the ventral root
innervate a specific myotome
(a region of skeletal muscle)
• The sensory fibers from the
dorsal root innervate a specific
dermatome (a region of skin)
1
Dermatome
2
Myotome
3
Spinal ganglion
4
Dorsal root
5
Filaments of dorsal root
6
Dorsal intermediate sulcus
7
Commissure of gray matter
8
Dorsal horn of gray matter
9
Lateral horn of gray matter
10
Ventral horn of gray matter
11
Ventral median fissure
12
White matter
13
Filaments of ventral root
14
Ventral root
Figure 4: Dermatomes
1
Cranial nerve V roots
(yellow area)
2
Cervical nerve roots
(blue area)
3
Thoracic nerve roots
(red area)
4
Lumbar nerve roots
(green area)
5
Sacral nerve roots
(purple area)
Figure 5: Spinal Cord Tracts
1
Septomarginal fasciculus
2
Interfascicular fasciculus
3
Lateral corticospinal tract
4
Rubrospinal tract
5
Lateral reticulospinal tract
6
Vestibulospinal tract
7
Ventral (medial)
reticulospinal tract
8
Tectospinal tract
9
Ventral corticospinal tract
10
Ventral spinothalamic tract
11
Spinotectal tract
12
Spinoolivary tract
13
Ventral spinocerebellar tract
14
Lateral spinothalamic tract &
spinoreticular tract
15
Dorsal spinocerebellar tract
16
Fasciculus cuneatus
17
Fasciculus gracilis
Figure 2: Spinal Cord & Sympathetic Trunk
4
5
3
2
1
14 13
1
• A dermatome is one
of several interlocking
areas of skin that are
each supplied by the
dorsal (sensory) root of
a single spinal nerve
• Because there is
considerable overlap of
adjoining dermatomes,
an area is not
anesthetized unless two
or more consecutive
dorsal roots have lost
function
• The spinal cord provides
conduction pathways to
and from the brain
Sensory impulses are
conducted up to the brain
via the ascending tracts of
the spinal cord Motor
impulses from the brain
are conducted down the
spinal cord via its
descending tracts Each
tract is composed of
bundles of axons All of
the axons within a tract
perform the same function
• There are two types of spinal cord tracts:
ascending (indicated in blue) and descending
(indicated in red) For clarity, each type of tract
is shown on only one half of the spinal cord
Anterior View Posterior View
2
3
4
5
1
6
5
4
11
10
9
12
13
3
2
7
8
9
11
10
12
13
14
1
14
7
8
2
3
4
5
6
8
9
10
11
12
7
6
17
16
15
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
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9
13
12
11
10
14
Figure 3: Segmental Innervation
Figure 5: Spinal Cord Tracts (Cross Section)
• The two components of the nervous
system are the central nervous system
(CNS) and the peripheral nervous
system (PNS) • The CNS is where
information is processed, and
includes the brain and spinal cord
• The PNS carries information
between the CNS and the
rest of the body, and
includes sensory and motor
divisions • The motor
neurons of the somatic
nervous system transmit
signals (contract or relax)
to skeletal muscle This
type of response is
considered voluntary,
though sometimes
skeletal muscle
movement is controlled
by automatic reactions
known as reflexes
• The autonomic
nervous system
(ANS) controls
smooth and cardiac
muscle (heartbeat)
and glandular
secretion, which
are involuntary
responses
Figure 4: Dermatomes
Figure 1: Spinal Cord (Posterior View)
2nd EDITION
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Description
pe rm a ch ar ts MT Spinal Cord 2nd EDITION Figure 1: Spinal Cord (Posterior View) Figure 2: Spinal Cord & Sympathetic Trunk Figure 1: Spinal Cord 6 7 1 Cervical nerves (8 pairs) • The two components of the nervous 2 Thoracic nerves (12 pairs) system are the central nervous system 8 3 Lmbar nerves (5 pairs) 9 4 Scral nerves (5 pairs) (CNS) and the peripheral nervous 4 5 5 Coccygeal nerves (1 pair) system (PNS) • The CNS is where 10 7 Brachial plexus information is processed, and 11 8 Sinal cord 6 includes the brain and spinal cord 9 Itercostal nerves 1 10 Conus medullaris • The PNS carries information 3 12 11 Cauda equina between the CNS and the 12 Lumbar plexus rest of the body, and 13 13 Sacral plexus 7 2 14 Siatic nerve includes sensory and motor divisions • The motor Sympathetic TrunkCord & 8 neurons of the somatic 2 nervous system transmit 2 Vertebral bodydisc signals (contract or relax) 3 White &gray Rami 9 communicantes to skeletal muscle • This 4 Sinal ganglion 10 type of response is 14 5 Arachnoid considered voluntary, 6 Gray matter 11 though sometimes 7 White matter skeletal muscle 1 8 Filaments of ventral root 9 Pia mater 3 12 movement is controlled 11 Ventral primary ramus by automatic reactions (spinal nerve) known as reflexes 12 Dura mater • The autonomic 13 Sympathetic trunk 13 14 Sympathetic ganglion 4 nervous system (ANS) controls Figure 3: Segmental 14 smooth and cardiac Innervation 5 muscle (heartbeat) • Each spinal nerve has both a and glandular motor component (indicated in Figure 3: Segmental Innervation red) and a sensory component secretion, which (indicated in blue) • The motor are involuntary 6 7 innervate a specific myotome responses 8 (a region of skeletal muscle) • The sensory fibers fromthe 5 dorsal root innervate a specific 9 dermatome (a region of skin) Figure 4: Dermatomes 4 3 1 Dermatome • A dermatome is one 2 Myotome of several interlocking 2 3 Spinal ganglion areas of skin that are 4 Dorsal root 6 Dorsal intermediate sulcus each supplied by the 1 7 Commissure of gray matter dorsal (sensory) root of 14 8 Dorsal horn of gray matter a single spinal nerve 13 10 9 Lateral horn of gray matter • Because there is 10 Ventral horn of gray matter considerable overlap of 12 11 11 Ventral median fissure adjoining dermatomes, 12 White matter an area is not Figure 5: Spinal Cord Tracts (Cross Section) 13 Filaments of ventral root 14 Ventral root anesthetized unless two • There are two types of spinal cord tracts: Figure 4: Dermatomes or more consecutive ascending (indicated in blue) and descending 1 Cranial nerve V roots dorsal roots have lost (indicated in red) • For clarity, each type of tract (yellow area) function 2 Cervical nerve roots is shown on only one half of the spinal cord (blue area) 1 3 Thoracic nerve roots 1 17 2 (red area) 2 4 Lumbar nerve roots 16 (green area) 5 Sacral nerve roots (purple area) 3 Figure 5: Spinal Cord Tracts
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