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Reference Guide

Multicellular Biology - Reference Guides

4 pages155 viewsFall 2015

Department
ANAT - Anatomy
Course Code
ANAT 14
Professor
All
Chapter
Permachart

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HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY HUMAN SKELETON
• Skin, the largest organ,
protects the body from
abrasion, ultraviolet
radiation, bacterial attack,
and environmental insults
Multicellular Biology
Multicellular Biology
BODY TEMPERATURE
Aorta
Left pulmonary 
artery
Pulmonary trunk
Left pulmonary 
veins
Left atrium
Aortic semilunar
valve
Bicuspid valve
Papillary muscle
Left ventricle
Superior vena
cava
Right pulmonary
veins
Pulmonary 
semilunar
valve
Right atrium
Tricuspid
valve
Chordae
tendineae
Right ventricle
Inferior vena cava
c
l
l
a
s
Ovaries (F)
Testes (M)
Duodendum
Pancreas
Stomach
Heart
Adrenals
Thyroid
Pituitary
Pineal
Thymus
• Boiling point
of water
(100°C/
212°F)
• Human body
temperature
(37°C/
98.6°F)
• Freezing
point of
water
(0°C/32°F)
HEART
BRAIN
a
v
s 
c
Frontal lobe Central sulcus Parietal 
lobe
Occipital 
lobe
Broca's 
area
Lateral 
sulcus
Temporal lobe 
Brain stem
Cerebellum
KIDNEY
• The kidney’s glomerali filters 45
to 47.5 gallons (170 to 180 L) of
blood plasma in 24 hours
a
v
Renal facia
Renal pyramid
Renal 
capsule
Ureter
Major calyx
Renal vein
Medulla
Andipose
capsule
Cortex
F
l
l
a
s
COMBINED FACTORS OF EXISTENCE
Phenotype % Genotype Pop Donates to Receives from
O46% ii A, B, AB, O O
A42% IAIAor IAiA, AB A, O
B9% IBIBor IBiB, AB B, O
AB 3% IAIBAB A, B, AB, O
Org. Compound & Building
Elements Blocks
Carbohydrates Simple sugars
(C, H, O)
Fats (C, H, O) Glycerol &
fatty acids
Proteins (C, H, O, N, S) Amino acids
Nucleic acids Nucleotides
(C, H, O, N, P)
Body Atomic % of
Element Num Body
Oxygen (O) 8 66
Carbon (C) 8 18
Hydrogen (H) 1 10
Nitrogen (N) 73
Calcium (Ca) 20 1.5
Others – 1.5
Coccyx
Femur Metacarpals
Ulna
Radius
Vertebra
Humerus
Sternum
Cervical
vertebrae
Skull
Clavicle
Scapula
Ribs
Pelvic
girdle
Carpals
Sacrum
Phalanges
Patella
Fibula
Tibia
Tarsals
Metatarsals
phalanges
• Action of skeletal muscles
on bones moves the body
• Bones serve as hard
components that enclose
and protect the brain,
spinal cord, heart, lungs,
and vital organs
• They support and anchor skin and soft organs
MALE-FEMALE SKELETAL DIFFERENCES
Note: Skull contains 8 cranial bones, 13 facial bones,
and 1 mandible
Axial No.
Skeleton Bones
Skull 22
Middle ear 6
bones
Hyoid 1
Vertebral 26
column
Thoracic cage 25
Appendicular 4
skeleton
Upper limbs 60
Pelvic girdle 2
Lower limbs 60
Total 206
Skull Female skull is relatively smaller and
lighter • The muscular attachments are
less conspicuous • Female forehead is
longer vertically • Facial area is rounder
and jaw is smaller
Pelvis Female pelvic bones are lighter, thinner,
and have less obvious muscular
attachments
Pelvic Cavity Female pelvic cavity is wider in all
diameters, shorter, and less funnel-
shaped
Sacrum Female sacrum is relatively wider and
bent more sharply posteriorly
Coccyx Female coccyx is more movable
MULTICELLULAR BIOLOGY • A-803-61© 1995-2013 Mindsource Technologies Inc.
l e a r n r e f e r e n c e r e v i e w
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permacharts
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