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Reference Guide

Permachart - Marketing Reference Guide: Aortic Valve, Heart Valve, Intravenous Therapy

4 pages1119 viewsFall 2015

Department
ANAT - Anatomy
Course Code
ANAT 14
Professor
All
Chapter
Permachart

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Nursing I
Nursing I
ASS E SSM E NT O F L U NG S OUN D S
GRA D ING HEA R T M U RMU R S HEA R T S O UND S
MET R I C C ONV E RSI O N FACTO R S
CAL C U LATIO N OF IV D RIP RATES
• During auscultation, move the diaphragm of
the stethoscope according to the numbered
positions on the diaphragm
NORMAL BREATH SOUNDS
ANTERIOR VIEW
bronchial 
(tracheal)
vesicular
v
bronchovesicular
b
Stethescope
placement
S 
vesicular
b
bronchovesicular
S 
Stethescope
placement
POSTERIOR VIEW
• Intensity of a heart murmur is graded using the
Levine scale
• Most obvious heart sounds are the first (S1) and second (S2) heart sounds
• Characteristic of systole and diastole
LENGTH
VOLUME
BOD Y TE M PER ATU R E C O NVE R SIO N S
°C °F
39.6 103.3
39.0 102.2
38.4 101.1
37.8 100.0
37.0 98.6
Absolute 0
-273.15 -459.67
˚C ˚F
39.6
39.0
38.4
37.8
37.0
103.3
102.2
101.1
100.0
98.6
°F = (°C ¥1.8) + 32
°C = (°F – 32) ÷ 1.8
CONVERSION FACTOR
BODY TEMPERATURE RANGES
Ear 35.8˚ - 38˚C (96.4˚ - 100.4˚F)
Rectal 36.6˚ - 38˚C (97.9˚ - 100.4˚F)
Oral 35.5˚ - 37.5˚C (93.9˚ - 99.5˚F)
Armpit 34.7˚ - 37.3˚C (94.5˚ - 99.1˚F)
Total number of mL Drip factor (gtt/mL) = Drip rate (gtt/min)
Total number of minutes
(no. hrs × 60 min/hr)
EQUATION Example: The doctor has written an order for 3600 mL D5W to be infused over
24 hours The IV equipment being used is Travenol straight tubing 10 drops
per milliliter What is the drip rate? Given the following information, the
equation is set up as follows:
300 mL
(24 hrs × 60 min/hr)
10 gtt.mL = 25 gtt/min
Grade Description
ILowest intensity Difficult to hear
II Low intensity Normally audible
III Medium to moderate intensity
• No palpable thrill
IV Medium intensity Palpable thrill
VLoud intensity Palpable thrill Audible
with stethoscope on chest
VI Loudest intensity Palpable thrill Audible
with stethoscope held over the chest
S1Characteristic of systole • Sound is created when an increase in the
intraventricular pressure during contraction exceeds the pressure in
the atria, causing closure of the AV valves (tricuspid and mitral
valves) • Contraction continues throughout the course of systole,
forcing blood through the semilunar valves (aortic and pulmonary
valves)
S2Characteristic of diastole • Produced when the ventricles relax
• Pressure within the heart is less than pressure of the aorta and
pulmonary artery • This results in a brief backflow of blood, which
causes the semilunar valves to close
Bronchial breath Heard over the trachea
sounds and bronchi
Bronchovesicular Heard over the major bronchi
breath sounds where there are fewer alveoli
• Posterior = between scapulae
• Anterior = around upper
sternum in first and second
intercostal spaces
Vesicular breath Heard over areas where
sounds the air flows through alveoli
and bronchioles
1 kilogram (kg) 1000 grams (g)
1 gram (g) 1000 milligrams(mg)
1 milligram (mg) 1000 micrograms (µg)
1 meter (m) 1000 millimeters (mm)
100 centimeters (cm)
10 decimeters (dm)
1 liter (L) 1000 milliliters (mL)
1 teaspoon (tsp) 4.9289 milliliters
1 tablespoon (tbsp) 14.7868 milliliters
NURSING I • 1-55080-734-X 1© 1998-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc.
2nd EDITION
www.permacharts.com
TM
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