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Reference Guide

Permachart - Marketing Reference Guide: Quadriceps Femoris Muscle, Subcutaneous Tissue, Rectus Femoris Muscle

4 pages357 viewsFall 2015

Department
ANAT - Anatomy
Course Code
ANAT 14
Professor
All
Chapter
Permachart

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Nursing II
Nursing II
PRE PARATIO N & A D M INI S TRAT I ON O F PA R E NTE R A L ME D ICAT I ONS
Intradermal injections are
injected directly into the skin
(or dermal tissue) in small
amounts of 0.5 mL or less
• Used mainly for diagnostic testing
to determine sensitivity to
medications (or other substances)
or to check for exposure to
diseases (e.g., tuberculosis)
• The ventral surface of the
forearms and the scapular
surfaces are the areas most
commonly used
• Other possible sites include the
upper arms and upper chest areas
• Areas that should be avoided are
sites with any bruising, irritation,
and/or swelling; areas where
clothing brushes up against the
skin; areas that are scarred or
have been altered because of skin
disorders; and areas that are
pigmented or hairy (these areas
may hide or give a false reaction
to the medication)
INTRADERMAL INJECTIONS
SUB C UTA N E OUS I NJEC T IONS
PREPARATIONS
• Cleanse selected skin area with an
alcohol pad and insert the needle
at a very shallow angle
(0 to 15°) just under
the skin surface
• Bevel should be
facing up so that
medication
forms a wheal
just under
the skin surface
• Inject the
medication
slowly to avoid tissue damage
• Withdraw needle gently and place a small gauze
pad over the injection site to absorb any blood
• Do not massage the site; this will force the
medication into the tissue
• Annotate the injection site so as to note if there are
any changes; include the time, medication, site, etc.
• Monitor the patient for any adverse reactions,
such as a rash, itching, hives, swelling or breathing
difficulties; notify the nurse and/or physician if the
patient exhibits any of these signs
Subcutaneous injections are
given into the loose
connective/fatty tissue between
the skin and muscle
• They are commonly administered
in the tissues of the upper arms in
volumes of 2 mL or less
• Tissues of the anterior thighs and
abdomen, the buttocks or upper
back areas can also be used
• If required to give frequent
injections, rotate sites similar to
that done for diabetic patients
• When a site has been selected, clean skin with alcohol, pinch skin between
your fingers to pull the subcutaneous tissue away from skin, and insert needle
at a 45 to 90° angle with bevel up
• Angle depends on thickness of skin and amount of subcutaneous tissue
available
• Release the skin; aspirate (pull back on) the plunger to determine if you are in
a blood vessel (do not aspirate if you are injecting heparin)
• If there is blood return, then withdraw the needle, prepare the needle for
another injection, and select another site; if no blood appears, then inject the
medication slowly
• When finished, withdraw the needle at the same angle as injected and gently
massage the injection site with a gauze pad to speed up absorption
• Monitor the patient for adverse reactions and document your activities
PREPARATIONS
Note: See Subcutaneous Injections and
Intramuscular Injections for more
information
ASS E SSME N T OF E D EMA
Edema is the accumulation of interstitial fluid
• Formation may be localized in one or more areas of
the body or may be generalized throughout the
body
• To assess, press on area firmly over a bony surface for
5-10 seconds and then release
Rating Description
0No indentation, no edema
+1 Mild pitting, with slight indentation
+2 Moderate pitting, but indentation subsides
quickly
+3 Deep pitting, indentation remains for a
short period of time (area appears swollen)
+4 Very deep pitting, indentation remains for a
prolonged period of time, and the general
region is very swollen
BRE ATH O DOR A S SES S M ENT
Breath Odor Possible Cause
Sweet, fruity breath Diabetic ketoacidosis with
(acetone scent) children • Dehydration and
malnutrition
Ammonia Uremia
Musty odor Liver disease
Fetid, foul odor Dental or respiratory infection
Alcohol odor Alcohol ingestion or chemicals
Mouselike odor Diphtheria
© 2002-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc.
NURSING II • 1-55080-735-8 1
2nd EDITION
www.permacharts.com
TM
permacharts
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