ANTH 140 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Ardi, Koobi Fora, Archaic Humans

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Woolfson
The Labour Theory of Culture: a reexamination of Engels’s theory of human
origins
Critical of Marxists and their view
Engel’s work was speculative, was not working off much evidence at the time
For Engels and Marx, the central feature distinguishing human beings from other
species is labor
Bipedalism came first, freed hands before tools and brain size
Human Evolution
The Labour Theory of Culture: a reexamination of Engels’s theory of human
origins
Frederick Engels: The Part Played by Labor in the Transition from Ape to
Man (1876)
Model: erect posture - bipedalism - frees hands - tools - selection
pressures - more dexterous hands (both organs & products of social labor
(def. Marx in Woolfson (p5) Perry “Transforming the material world
socioculturally & themselves”) - larger brains - brain reorganization -
language capacity - better tools - more specialized tasks - social
organization - labor bound activity - culture & cooperative organized
social groups
Early humans distinguished by:
Unique behavior of human labor in dialectical articulation with our
brain created humans beings
Creative intelligence expressed in “projective consciousness” tool
production and tool tradition (culture)
Piltdown Fraud (1912)
Intellectual & political-economic climate in England
Darwin - Origin of Species (1859) & Descent of Man (1871)
Human skull and orangutan (black and white, bad fit)
Fluorine method dating (relative technique)
Plio-Pleistocene Epoch Hominins (Humans and their ancestors)
Pleistocene environment (6-5 millions years ago) “Ice Age” By 3 mya
decline of forests & expanding savannas
Bipedalism
Advantages
“Chillin” hypothesis standing taller to cool down
Ability to run and climb
Disadvantages
Predators can see them over the grass
Plio-Pleistocene Hominins (Humans & their ancestors)
Earliest ones found on Savanna forest fringe
Sahelanthropus tchadensis “Toumai” (7-6 mya) Chad (350 cm^3)
Bipedal?
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Document Summary

Engel"s work was speculative, was not working off much evidence at the time. For engels and marx, the central feature distinguishing human beings from other species is labor. Bipedalism came first, freed hands before tools and brain size. The labour theory of culture: a reexamination of engels"s theory of human origins. Frederick engels: the part played by labor in the transition from ape to. Model: erect posture - bipedalism - frees hands - tools - selection pressures - more dexterous hands (both organs & products of social labor (def. Unique behavior of human labor in dialectical articulation with our brain created humans beings. Creative intelligence expressed in projective consciousness tool production and tool tradition (culture) Darwin - origin of species (1859) & descent of man (1871) Human skull and orangutan (black and white, bad fit) Plio-pleistocene epoch hominins (humans and their ancestors) Pleistocene environment (6-5 millions years ago) ice age by 3 mya decline of forests & expanding savannas.

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