ENG 571 Lecture 35: Ch 35- Teaching Young Learners in Eng as Second_Foreign Lang Setting

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5 Dec 2019
School
Department
Course
Professor
Defining Young Learner
(YL)
Piaget 4 Stages of Cog Development in relation to lang
learning capabilities:
1. Sensorimotor (0-2): knowledge based on
phys interactions/experience w/ symbols
2. Preoperational (2-7): knowledge shown
through symbols, memory, & imagination; can’t
see things from others POV
3. Concrete operational (7-11): knowledge
shown through logical/organized ways of
relating to objects; use inductive reasoning, can
take experiences & apply them
4. Formal operational (11+): knowledge shown
through symbols related to concepts; can
hypothesize & use inductive/deductive
reasoning
Teaching ESL vs EFL
Main difference: role of English
ESL:
Eng= primary lang
Used on reg basis
Plenty of chances to hear it
Need it to socialize
Goal: mainstream students ASAP into class so
they’re not separated from their L1 peers
2 program models:
ESL Push/Plug-In: integrate YL’s into
mainstream classroom
ESL teacher comes into class to
clarify/translate & collab w/ main
teacher
co-plan/teach & give all students
benefits from lang development
instruction
Gives chance to focus on content
& lang
ESL Pull-out: pull YL’s from class for 30
min; spend rest day w/ reg class
All instruction in English
Focuses on grammar, vocab, &
communication skills
EFL:
Other langs= primary
Lacks English
Students around world study English for longer
to increase use
FLES program: avg. 3 contact hrs/week- 30 to
45 min
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Goal: expose kids to foreign lang & build basic
proficiency in the 4 lang skills
Optimal Environment for
Learning
Depends on comprehensible input
Lang students are exposed to should be just above
current comp. Level
Strategies for making L2 comp (child-directed speech)
Talk how parent would to child learning L2
Clear pronunciation
Slower speech rate
Short, simple utterances
rephrase/repeat
Meaning-focused error correction
Modeling
Give input thats comp., interesting & relevant to YL
Provide opportunities for output; give YL chance to
speak in L2 & test their hypothesese ab L2
Create comfortable environment to speak/make
mistakes
Focus on correcting meaning
Use choral repetitions (songs, chants, etc)
Best Approach to Teaching
English to YL’s
Focus on phys, social, & emotional learning
Encourage:
Self-discipline/self-motivated tasks
Getting involved in activities w/ others
Make big choices from hands-on activities
Grow knowledge at own pace; discover/engage
in activities that reflect all learning areas &
talking it out w/ adults
Need to have their interest, imagination, & curiosity
sparked to keep their attention
Let them make sense of world by interacting w/ their
phys environment & their peers/teacher
Zone of proximal development: diff bt what YL can
achieve on their own vs w/ some help
Scaffolding: help YL accomplish task; make it
interesting, break it down, model it, & show diff ways to
solve it
Give them reminders of their goal
Show them the meaning in how lang is used in
interactions
Help them notice grammar by focusing on form
w/o breaking lang into smaller parts
Build grammar accuracy through input/output
Use thematic units to give meaningful context for lang
to be used/practiced
Let students focus more on content than on
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