ENG 571 Lecture 35: Ch 35- Teaching Young Learners in Eng as Second_Foreign Lang Setting

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5 Dec 2019
Defining Young Learner
Piaget 4 Stages of Cog Development in relation to lang
learning capabilities:
1. Sensorimotor (0-2): knowledge based on
phys interactions/experience w/ symbols
2. Preoperational (2-7): knowledge shown
through symbols, memory, & imagination; can’t
see things from others POV
3. Concrete operational (7-11): knowledge
shown through logical/organized ways of
relating to objects; use inductive reasoning, can
take experiences & apply them
4. Formal operational (11+): knowledge shown
through symbols related to concepts; can
hypothesize & use inductive/deductive
Teaching ESL vs EFL
Main difference: role of English
Eng= primary lang
Used on reg basis
Plenty of chances to hear it
Need it to socialize
Goal: mainstream students ASAP into class so
they’re not separated from their L1 peers
2 program models:
ESL Push/Plug-In: integrate YL’s into
mainstream classroom
ESL teacher comes into class to
clarify/translate & collab w/ main
co-plan/teach & give all students
benefits from lang development
Gives chance to focus on content
& lang
ESL Pull-out: pull YL’s from class for 30
min; spend rest day w/ reg class
All instruction in English
Focuses on grammar, vocab, &
communication skills
Other langs= primary
Lacks English
Students around world study English for longer
to increase use
FLES program: avg. 3 contact hrs/week- 30 to
45 min
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Goal: expose kids to foreign lang & build basic
proficiency in the 4 lang skills
Optimal Environment for
Depends on comprehensible input
Lang students are exposed to should be just above
current comp. Level
Strategies for making L2 comp (child-directed speech)
Talk how parent would to child learning L2
Clear pronunciation
Slower speech rate
Short, simple utterances
Meaning-focused error correction
Give input thats comp., interesting & relevant to YL
Provide opportunities for output; give YL chance to
speak in L2 & test their hypothesese ab L2
Create comfortable environment to speak/make
Focus on correcting meaning
Use choral repetitions (songs, chants, etc)
Best Approach to Teaching
English to YL’s
Focus on phys, social, & emotional learning
Self-discipline/self-motivated tasks
Getting involved in activities w/ others
Make big choices from hands-on activities
Grow knowledge at own pace; discover/engage
in activities that reflect all learning areas &
talking it out w/ adults
Need to have their interest, imagination, & curiosity
sparked to keep their attention
Let them make sense of world by interacting w/ their
phys environment & their peers/teacher
Zone of proximal development: diff bt what YL can
achieve on their own vs w/ some help
Scaffolding: help YL accomplish task; make it
interesting, break it down, model it, & show diff ways to
solve it
Give them reminders of their goal
Show them the meaning in how lang is used in
Help them notice grammar by focusing on form
w/o breaking lang into smaller parts
Build grammar accuracy through input/output
Use thematic units to give meaningful context for lang
to be used/practiced
Let students focus more on content than on
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