BIOS 15115 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Actin, Clonal Selection, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

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When tumor has spun off lots of metastases, it becomes difficult to search through body and remove: higher mortality rate. When breast cancer metastasizes to other areas of body, problems start occurring: some never metastasize, some frequently metastasize. Basement membrane: tightly woven extracellular fibers. When tumor invades through basement, dissolves fibers beneath and releases growth factors: brings closer to capillaries, allows for quicker and better access to rest of body. Invasion-metastasis cascade: primary tumor formation, localized invasion, intravasation. Interaction with platelets, lymphocytes, and other blood components: transport through circulation, arrest in microvessels of various organs, extravasation, formation of a micrometastasis, colonization formation of a macrometastasis. 1880: realized some types of cancer chose to metastasize to specific regions: hypothesized that tumor cell was seed and tissue bed was the soil. There had to be a match between seed and soil to achieve a thriving metastasis: took ~70 years for evidence of this to develop, ppt: b16 melanoma growing subcutaneously.

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