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Reference Guide

Thermodynamics - Reference Guides

4 Pages
1860 Views
Fall 2015
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Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHEM 11100
Professor
All
Chapter
Permachart

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Thermodynamics
THERMODYNAMICS BASICS
Adiabat: Line or path describing adiabatic process
Adiabatic process: Heat is not transferred into or out of system
Boiling point: Temperature at which liquid under fixed pressure
converts to vapor
Carnot cycle: System undergoing cyclical process with 4 reversible
changes
Carnot engine: Most efficient heat engine which carries out the
Carnot cycle
Critical point: Temperature and pressure at which liquid and vapor
become identical
Cyclical process: Repeats sequence of changes in system
Enthalpy (H): Quantity of heat in substance/unit mass under
constant pressure
Entropy (S): Thermodynamic property related to degree of disorder
in a system
Heat (qor Q): Form of energy transfer resulting from temperature
difference
Heat capacity (C): Total amount of heat to produce a 1 degree rise
in temperature of a given substance
Heat engine: Converts heat into mechanical energy
Internal energy: Total kinetic and potential energy at the molecular
level
Isobaric process: Process involving constant pressure in the system
Isochoric process: Process involving constant volume
Isotherm: Line describing an isothermal process
Isothermal process: Process involving constant temperature
Latent heat of fusion (Lf): Amount of heat needed to convert unit
mass of solid to liquid at same temperature
Latent heat of vaporization (Lv): Amount of heat needed to
convert unit mass of liquid to vapor (same temperature)
Liquefaction point: Temperature at which vapor or solid converts to
a liquid
Melting point: Temperature at which solid sub stance melts at a
fixed pressure
Pressure (por P): Force acting on a unit area
Saturated liquid: State of liquid in which vapor begins to form
Saturated vapor: State of vapor in which liquid is vaporized
Specific volume (
u
): Vol. per unit mass of a substance
Subcooled (compressed) liquid: Liquid at temperature which
permits transition to another more stable phase without
transformation into an even more stable phase
Sublimation: Phase transition of a substance from solid to vapor
phase
Supercritical state: Pressure and temperature are greater than at
critical values
Superheated liquid: Liquid is at temperature higher than its boiling
point without conversion to gaseous state
Superheated vapor: Vapor at temperature higher than boiling point
at given pressure
Thermodynamics: Study of storage, transfer, and transformation of
energy
Triple point: Temp erature and pressure at which solid, liquid, and
vapor co-exist
Vaporization: Passage of mol ecules from a liquid to a gaseous phase
Work (wor W): Form of energy transfer that can be expressed as a
force acting through a distance
DEFINITIONS
CONVERSION FACTORS
Energy
1J= 1 kg-m2/s2
= 0.239 cal = 1 N-m
= 2.78 ¥10–7 kWh
1 cal = 4.184 J
1eV= 1.602189 ¥10 –19 J
1 eV/atom = 96.485 kJ/mol
1 kWh = 3600 kJ
1 Btu = 778 ft-lbf
= 252 cal
= 1060 J
Volume
1L= 1000 mL
= 1000 cm3
= 61.0 in3
= 1.056688 qt
1 qt = 2 pt = 32 fl oz
1 gal = 3.785412 L
= 128 fl oz
1 ft3= 28.3 L
= 1728 in3
Temperature
TF= (9/5 ¥TC) + 32
TC = 5/9(TF– 32)
TR= TF+ 459.67
TK= TC+ 273.15
Force
1 N = 1 kg-m/s2
= 0.225 lbf= 105D
1 lbf= 4.45 N
= 32.17 lbm-ft/s2
Mass
1 slug = 32.2 lb = 14.6 kg
1 kg = 1000 g
= 2.2046226 lb
1 lb = 453.59237 g = 16 oz
Length
1 m = 3.28 ft = 39.37008 in
1 mi = 1.61 km = 5280 ft
1 in = 2.54 cm
Pressure
1 atm = 1.01 ¥105N/m2
= 101325 Pa
= 760 mm Hg
= 760 Torr
= 14.6959 psi
= 29.9 in Hg
= 1.01325 bar
WORK & H E AT
Work and heat are quantities that result from energy transfer;
work is associated with expansion or compression of gases
• Plotting Pvs. Vis a simple way to calculate work done on a
system
• Work is area under curve
• Each point on Pvs. Vgraph has an equation of state
• Graph shows a piston moving in a compressed gas system
• As gas expands (contracts), pressure and volume change;
hence, equation of state will be different
• Work done on system depends on initial state (i), final
state (f), and intermediate states
• Total work done on system is W = PDV, where P
is pressure of surround ings, Vis volume, and Wis
work
• By con vention, DV is expressed as final minus
initial volumes (that is, DV = Vf– Vi)
Example:
Find work done along path bto con Pvs. V
graph
Solution: Wbc = P(Vc– Vb)= (6 ¥105Pa) ¥
(0.05 m30.02 m3) = 1.80 ¥104 J, where Wbc
is work along path bc, Pis pressure, and Vband
Vc are volumes at points band c, respectively
P
W = PV
V
WP = W
V
V = W
P
P
V
0.02
d
5x105
2x105
0.05
a
c
b
PV Work
Thermodynamics
l e a r n r e f e r e n c e r e v i e w
TM
permacharts
THERMODYNAMICS • 1-55080-860-51© 1999-2013 Mindsource Technologies Inc.
w w w . p e r m a c h a r t s . c o m

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Description
This detailed and well structured Guide builds upon the Physics principles defined in its companion Guides. The basic concepts are clearly and concisely defined and the laws of Thermodynamics are clearly articulated. Graphics and charts are also employed throughout the Guide to convey the scientific concepts in an attractive and compelling fashion
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