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Reference Guide

Permachart - Marketing Reference Guide: Beta Particle, Beta Decay, Atomic Number

2 pages320 viewsFall 2015

Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHEM 11100
Professor
All
Chapter
Permachart

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1
IA
IA
2
IIA
IIA
3
IIIA
IIIB
4
IVA
IVB
5
VA
VB
6
VIA
VIB
7
VIIA
VIIB
8
VIIIA
VIII
9
VIIIA
VIII
10
VIIIA
VIII
11
IB
IB
12
IIB
IIB
13
IIIB
IIIA
14
IVB
IVA
15
VB
VA
16
VIB
VIA
17
VIIB
VIIA
18
VIII
0
Periodic Table of the Elements
TM
permacharts
l e a r n r e f e r e n c e r e v i e w
1.00794 4.002602
–259.1 –272.226 atm
–252.762 –268.93
0.0899 0.1785
2.20 –
13.5984 24.5874
1s11s2
Hydrogen Helium
6.941 9.012182 10.811 12.0107 14.0067 15.9994 18.9984032 20.1797
180.50 1287 2075 4489TP –210.00 –218.79 –219.67TP –248.609TP
1342 2471 4000 3825SP –195.798 –182.953 –188.12 –246.053
0.534 1.85 2.34 2.2 1.251 1.429 1.696 0.9
0.98 1.57 2.04 2.55 3.04 3.44 3.98 –
5.3917 9.3227 8.2980 11.2603 14.5341 13.6181 17.4228 21.5645
[He]2s1[He]2s2[He]2s22p1[He]2s22p2[He]2s22p3[He]2s22p4[He]2s22p5[He]2s22p6
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
22.98976928 24.3050 26.9815386 28.0855 30.973762 32.065 35.453 39.948
97.794 650 660.32 1414 44.15 115.21 –101.5 –189.36TP
882.940 1090 2519 3265 280.5 444.61 –34.04 –185.847
0.97 1.74 2.70 2.3296 1.823 2.07 3.214 1.784
0.93 1.31 1.61 1.90 2.19 2.58 3.16 –
5.1391 7.6462 5.9858 8.1517 10.4867 10.3600 12.9676 15.7596
[Ne]3s1[Ne]3s2[Ne]3s23p1[Ne]3s23p2[Ne]3s23p3[Ne]3s23p4[Ne]3s23p5[Ne]3s23p6
Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
39.0983 40.078 44.955912 47.867 50.9415 51.9961 54.938045 55.845 58.933195 58.6934 63.546 65.38 69.723 72.64 74.92160 78.96 79.904 83.798
63.5 842 1541 1668 1910 1907 1246 1538 1495 1455 1084.62 419.53 29.7666TP 938.25 817TP 220.8 –7.2 –157.38TP
759 1484 2836 3287 3407 2671 2061 2861 2927 2913 2562 907 2204 2833 616SP 685 58.8 –153.34
0.89 1.54 2.99 4.506 6.0 7.15 7.3 7.87 8.86 8.90 8.96 7.134 5.91 5.3234 5.75 4.809 3.120 3.75
0.82 1.00 1.36 1.54 1.63 1.66 1.55 1.83 1.88 1.91 1.90 1.65 1.81 2.01 2.18 2.55 2.96 –
4.3407 6.1132 6.5615 6.8281 6.7462 6.7665 7.4340 7.9024 7.8810 7.6398 7.7264 9.3942 5.9993 7.8994 9.7886 9.7524 11.8138 13.9996
[Ar]4s1[Ar]4s2[Ar]3d14s2[Ar]3d24s2[Ar]3d34s2[Ar]3d54s1[Ar]3d54s2[Ar]3d64s2[Ar]3d74s2[Ar]3d84s2[Ar]3d104s1[Ar]3d104s2[Ar]3d104s24p1[Ar]3d104s24p2[Ar]3d104s24p3[Ar]3d104s24p4[Ar]3d104s24p5[Ar]3d104s24p6
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
85.4678 87.62 88.90585 91.224 92.90638 95.96 (97.9072) 101.07 102.90550 106.42 107.8682 112.411 114.818 118.710 121.760 127.60 126.90447 131.293
39.30 777 1522 1854.7 2477 2623 2157 2334 1964 1554.8 961.78 321.069 156.60 231.93 630.628 449.51 113.7 –111.745SP
688 1382 3345 4409 4744 4639 4265 4150 3695 2963 2162 767 2072 2602 1587 988 184.4 –108.09
1.53 2.64 4.47 6.52 8.57 10.2 11 12.1 12.4 12.0 10.5 8.69 7.31 7.287 6.68 6.232 4.933 5.9
0.82 0.95 1.22 1.33 1.6 2.16 2.10 2.2 2.28 2.20 1.93 1.69 1.78 1.96 2.05 2.1 2.66 2.60
4.1771 5.6949 6.2173 6.6339 6.7589 7.0924 7.28 7.3605 7.4589 8.3369 7.5762 8.9938 5.7864 7.3439 8.6084 9.0096 10.4513 12.1298
[Kr]5s1[Kr]5s2[Kr]4d15s2[Kr]4d25s2[Kr]4d45s1[Kr]4d55s1[Kr]4d55s2[Kr]4d75s1[Kr]4d85s1[Kr]4d10 [Kr]4d105s1[Kr]4d105s2[Kr]4d105s25p1[Kr]4d105s25p2[Kr]4d105s25p3[Kr]4d105s25p4[Kr]4d105s25p5[Kr]4d105s25p6
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
132.9054519 137.327 178.49 180.94788 183.84 186.207 190.23 192.217 195.084 196.966569 200.59 204.3833 207.2 208.98040 (208.9824) (209.9871) (222.0176)
28.5 727 2233 3017 3422 3185 3033 2446 1768.2 1064.18 –38.8290 304 327.462 271.406 254 302 –71
671 1897 4603 5458 5555 5596 5012 4428 3825 2856 356.62 1473 1749 1564 962 337*–61.7
1.873 3.62 13.3 16.4 19.3 20.8 22.587 22.562 21.5 19.3 13.5336 11.8 11.3 9.79 9.20 9.73
0.79 0.89 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.4 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.2
3.8939 5.2117 6.8251 7.5496 7.8640 7.8335 8.4382 8.9670 8.9588 9.2255 10.4375 6.1082 7.4167 7.2855 8.414 10.7485
[Xe]6s1[Xe]6s2[Xe]4f145d26s2[Xe]4f145d36s2[Xe]4f145d46s2[Xe]4f145d56s2[Xe]4f145d66s2[Xe]4f145d76s2[Xe]4f145d96s1[Xe]4f145d106s1
[Xe]4f145d106s2
[Xe]4f145d106s26p1[Xe]4f145d106s26p2[Xe]4f145d106s26p3[Xe]4f145d106s26p4[Xe]4f145d106s26p5[Xe]4f145d106s26p6
Cesium Barium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
(223.0197) (226.0254) (261.1088) (262.1141) (266.1219) (264.12) (277) (268.1388) (271) (272.1535) (285) (284.178) (289) (288.192) (289) (294)
27 696 –––––––––––––––
677 – –––––––––––––––
–5 –––––––––––––––
0.7 0.9 –––––––––––––––
4.0727 5.2784 6.0 ––––––––––––––
[Rn]7s1[Rn]7s2[Rn]5f146d27s2
[Rn]5f146d37s2
[Rn]5f146d47s2[Rn]5f146d57s2[Rn]5f146d67s2[Rn]5f146d77s2[Rn]5f146d97s1[Rn]5f146d107s1[Rn]5f146d107s2[Rn]5f146d107s27p1[Rn]5f146d107s27p2[Rn]5f146d107s27p3[Rn]5f146d107s27p4[Rn]5f146d107s27p5[Rn]5f146d107s27p6
Francium Radium
Rutherfordium**
Dubnium** Seaborgium** Bohrium** Hassium** Meitnerium** Darmstadtium** Roentgenium** Copernicium** Ununtrium Ununquadium Ununpentium Ununhexium Ununseptium Ununoctium
138.90547 140.116 140.90765 144.242 (144.9127) 150.36 151.964 157.25 158.92535 162.500 164.93032 167.259 168.93421 173.054 174.9668
920 799 931 1016 1042 1072 822 1313 1359 1412 1472 1529 1545 824 1663
3464 3443 3520 3074 3000 1794 1529 3273 3230 2567 2700 2868 1950 1196 3402
6.15 6.770 6.77 7.01 7.26 7.52 5.24 7.90 8.23 8.55 8.80 9.07 9.32 6.90 9.84
1.10 1.12 1.13 1.14 – 1.17 – 1.20 – 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 – 1.0
5.5769 5.5387 5.473 5.5250 5.582 5.6437 5.6704 6.1498 5.8638 5.9389 6.0215 6.1077 6.1843 6.2542 5.4259
[Xe]5d16s2[Xe]4f15d16s2[Xe]4f36s2[Xe]4f46s2[Xe]4f56s2[Xe]4f66s2[Xe]4f76s2[Xe]4f75d16s2[Xe]4f96s2[Xe]4f106s2[Xe]4f116s2[Xe]4f126s2[Xe]4f136s2[Xe]4f146s2[Xe]4f145d16s2
Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium
(227.0277) 232.03806 231.03588 238.02891 (237.0482) (244.0642) (243.0614) (247.0704) (247.0703) (251.0796) (252.0830)
(257.0951)
(258.0984)
(259.1010)
(262.1097)
1050 1750 1572 1135 644 640 1176 1345 1050 900 860 1527 827 827 1627
3198 4788 – 4131 – 3228 2011 3100*–––––––
10 11.7 15.4 19.1 20.2 19.7 12 13.51 14.78 15.1 –––––
1.1 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 –
5.17 6.3067 5.89 6.1941 6.2657 6.0260 5.9738 5.9914 6.1979 6.2817 6.42 6.50 6.58 6.65 4.9
[Rn]6d17s2[Rn]6d27s2[Rn]5f26d17s2[Rn]5f36d17s2[Rn]5f46d17s2[Rn]5f67s2[Rn]5f77s2[Rn]5f76d17s2[Rn]5f97s2[Rn]5f107s2[Rn]5f117s2[Rn]5f127s2[Rn]5f137s2[Rn]5f147s2[Rn]5f147s27p1?
Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium
Lanthanoids
57-71
Actinoids
✹✹
89-103
1 2
1,1 –
H He
34 5678910
12 32,±4 ±1,±2,±3,4,5 –1,–2 –1
Li Be BCNOFNe
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
12 34,2,4±3,4,5±2,4,6 ±1,3,5,7 –
Na Mg Al Si PSCl Ar
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36
1232,3,42,3,4,52,3,6 2,3,4,6,7 2,32,3 2,3 1,2232,4 ±3,5 –2,4,6 ±1,5 –
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54
12343,52,3,4,5,64,6,72,3,4,6,8 2,3,4 2,3,4 1232,4 ±3,5 –2,4,6 ±1,5,7 –
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
55 56 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86
12 452,3,4,5,6–1,2,4,6,72,3,4,6,8 2,3,4,6 2,41,31,21,3 2,4 3,5 2,4 ±1,3,5,7 –
Cs Ba Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
87 88 104 105 10 6 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118
12 4––––––––––––––
Fr Ra Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Uut Uuq Uup Uuh Uus Uuo
57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71
33,4 3,4332,32,333,4 3332,32,33
La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 10 0 101 10 2 10 3
344,53,4,5,63,4,5,6 3,4,5,6 3,4,5,6 33,4 32,332,3 2,3 3
Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr
v
Conforms to IUPAC General Assembly Report
✹✹
*Indicates approximate values and/or inconsistent literature data.
**Unnilquadium, Unnilpentium, Unnilhexium, Unnilseptium, Unniloctium,
Unnilennium, Ununnilium, and Unununium are the previous names for
elements 104-112, respectively.
1. Ratio of the average mass per atom of the element to 1/12 of the
mass of an atom of 12C. Round brackets indicate atomic weight of the
most stable or best known isotope. 2. Number of protons in the
nucleus of each atom of an element. 3. Number of charges an atom
would have in a molecule (or an ionic compound) if electrons were
transferred completely. 4. Names and symbols of elements 104-112
are those recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied
Chemistry (IUPAC). 5. Distribution of electrons among the various
atomic orbitals. 6. Two older group classifications systems still in use
today rely on an A/B coding scheme to categorize periodic properties.
Because of the potential for confusion between these two systems
(i.e., VIIA in one scheme is equal to VIIB in the other), IUPAC
recommends the use of an unambiguous 1-18 group classification
system. 7. Melting point: temperature at which solid and liquid phases
coexist in equilibrium. Boiling point: temperature at which the vapor
pressure of a liquid is equal to the external atmospheric pressure.
Unless otherwise stated, values are at 1 atm; SP = sublimation point
at 1 atm; TP = triple point. 8. Mass of the substance divided by its
volume (g/cm3at 20°C; for gases: g/L at 0°C, 1 atm). 9. Relative
measure of the attraction of an atom in a chemical bond for the shared
electrons. 10. Minimum energy to remove an electron from an isolated
atom in its ground state (1 eV = 96.487 kJ/mol).
Contributors: T.K. Varga, MASc; C. Bello, MASc
A. Bello, BASc, OCT
ISBN: 1-55431-287-6
Trade names are the property of their respective owners. Mindsource Technologies Inc. and its
partners disclaim all liability for any damage, however caused, which may result from the
application or misapplication of this information. Visit permacharts.com, or call 1.800.387.3626.
Printed in Canada. © 2007-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc.
Revised March 2012 .
Difference in Electronegativity 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0
%IC (by L. Pauling) 0.2 1.0 2.2 3.9 6.1 8.6 12 15 18 22 26 30 34 39 43 47 51 56 59 63
%IC (by Hannay & Smyth) 1.6 3.3 5.1 7.0 8.9 11 13 15 17 20 22 24 27 29 32 35 37 40 43 46
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2
67 70 73 76 79 82 84 86 88 89 91 92
49 52 55 59 62 65 69 72 76 80 83 87
% Ionic Character of a Single Chemical Bond
Percent ionic character describes the nature of a bond. Bonds possessing 50% or greater ionic character are commonly termed ionic; bonds with less than 50% ionic character are termed covalent. Pauling’s
equation was modified by Hannay & Smyth in order to achieve better agreement between exper imen tal and calculated values. Transition from ionic to covalent binding is usually accompanied by a reduction
in electrical conductance, melting point, and boiling point.
Electron Proton Neutron
Photon Neutrino
Symbol ePn g n
Rest mass (kg) 9.10938215(45)
x
10–31 1.672621637(83)
x
10–27 1.674927211(84)
x
10–27 0ª0
Molar mass (kg/mol) 5.4857990943(23)
x
10–7 1.00727646677(10)
x
10–3 1.00866491597(43)
x
10–3 0ª0
Particle-electron mass ratio 1 1836.15267247(80) 1838.6836605(11) 0 ª0
Particle-proton mass ratio 5.4461702177(24)
x
10–4 11.00137841918(46) 0 ª0
Particle-neutron mass ratio 5.4386734459(33)
x
10–4 0.99862347824(46) 10ª0
Specific charge (C/kg) –1.75881962(53)
x
10+11 9.5788309(29)
x
10+7 000
Radius (m) 2.8179402894(58)
x
10–15 8
x
10–16 8
x
10–16 0ª0
Spin quantum number 1/2 1/2 1/2 1 1/2
Compton wavelength (m) 2.4263102175(33)
x
10–12 1.3214098446(19)
x
1015 1.3195908951(20)
x
10–5
Magnetic moment (J/T); m–928.476377(23)
x
10–26 1.410606662(37)
x
10–26 0.96623641(23)
x
10–26 00
in Bohr magnetons; m/mB–1.00115965218111(74) 1.521032209(12)
x
10–3 –1.04187563(25)
x
10–3 00
in nuclear magnetons; m/mN–1838.28197092(80) 2.792847356(23) –1.91304273(45) 00
Atomic Weight1
( ) indicates most stable
or best known isotope
Melting Point7,°C
Boiling Point7,°C
Density8, g/cm3
(gases: g/L at 0°C, 1atm)
First Ionization
Potential10 , eV
Electronegativity9
Pauling scale
Group
Classifications6
Atomic Number2
Oxidation States3
bold indicates most
stable state
Symbol4
black = solid,
red = gas, blue = liquid,
outline = synthetically
prepared
Electronic5
Configuration
Name4
7
VIIA
VIIB
54.938045
1246
2061
7.3
1.55
7.4340
[Ar]3d54s2
Manganese
25
2,3,4,6,7
Mn
Elementary Subatomic Particles
Elementary particles are the fundamental constituents of energy and
matter. The positron (e+) is a positive-energy particle which has the
same mass as an ordinary electron. The antineutrino ( n
-) has similar
properties to that of a neutrino (n) except its spin is directed along its
direction of motion, whereas the neutrino’s spin is always opposite to
its direction of motion. Negative beta decay is the transformation of a
neutron into a proton, a beta particle (negative electron), and an
antineutrino (n Æp + e+ n
-). Positive beta decay is the
transformation of a proton into a neutron, a positron, and a neutrino
(p Æn + b++ n). The magnetic moment (m) of a particle can also be
expressed as a dimensionless quantity by dividing it with either the
Bohr magneton (mB= 9.2740154(31)
x
10–24 J/T) or the nuclear
magneton (mN= 5.0507866(17)
x
1027 J/T).
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