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Reference Guide

Periodic Table of the Elements - Reference Guides

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Description
permacharts TM Periodic Table of the Elements v learn • reference • review Conforms to IUPAC General Assembly Report ▼ Elementary Subatomic Particles ▼ % Ionic Character of a Single Chemical Bond DifferenceinElectronega0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.02.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 Electron Proton Neutron Photon Neutrino 1 Symbol e P n g n %IC(byL.Pauling) 0.2 1.0 2.2 3.9 6.1 8.6 12 15 18 22 26 30 34 39 43 47 51 56 59 63 70 73 76 79 82 84 86 88 89 91 92 18 IA Rest mass(kg) 9.10938215(45) x 101.672621637(83) x1.674927211(84) x 100 ª0 %IC(byHannay&Smyth) 1.6 3.3 5.1 7.0 8.9 11 13 15 17 20 22 24 27 29 32 35 37 40 43 469 52 55 59 62 65 69 72 76 80 83 87 VIII IA –3 Percent ionic character describes the nature of a bond. Bonds possessing 50% or greater ionic character are commonly termed ionic; bonds with 0ess than 50% ionic character are termed covalent. Pauling’s Molar mass(kg/mol) 5.4857990943(23) x 1.00727646677(10)1.00866491597(43) x 00 ª0 equation was modified by Hannay & Smyth in order to achieve better agreement between experimental and calculated values.Transition from ionic to covalent binding is usually accompanied by a reduction 1.00794 Particle-electronmassra1io 1836.15267247(80)1838.6836605(11) 0 ª0 in electrical conductance, melting point, and boiling point. 4.002602 –259.1 1 –4 –272.2atm 2 –252.762 1–1 Particle-protonmassrati5.4461702177(x 1 1 1.00137841918(46) 0 ª0 –268.93 – 0.0899 Particle-neutronmassrat5.4386734459(33)04 0.99862347824(46)1 0 ª0 Atomic Weight Group 0.1785 13.5984 H 2 Specificcharge(C/kg) –1.75881962(53) x 19.5788309(29) x 100 0 ( ) indicates most stable 7 Classifications 13 14 15 16 17 24.5874He 1 –16 or best known isotope VIIA 2 1s IIA Radius(m) 2.8179402894(58) x 8x 1016 8x 10 0 ª0 VIIB Atomic Number IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB 1s Hydrogen IIA Spinquantumnumber 1/2 1/2 1/2 1 1/2Melting Poi°C , IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA Helium 6.941 9.012182 Comptonwavelength(m) 2.4263102175x 1)12 13214098446(x 1–11.3195908951(x 1–5 – – 54.938045 Oxidation States 10.811 12.0107 14.0067 15.9994 18.9984032 20.1797 180.50 3 4 1287 Boiling Poi°C , 1246 25 bold indicates mos2075 5 64489P 8 91 –210.00 –218.79 –219.67 –248.609 1342 1 2471 Magneticmoment (J/T); –928.476377(23)026 1.410606662(37) x–0.96623641(23) x 100 0 2061 2,3,4,6,7 stable state 4000 3 3825P 2,±4 –195.7981,±2,±3,–182.953 –1,–2 –188.12 –1 –246.053 – 0.534 1.85 inBohr magnetons;m/B –1.00115965218111(71.521032209(12) x–1.04187563(25) x 100 0 Densit,g/cm 7.3 Symbol4 2.34 2.2 1.251 1.429 1.696 0.9 0.98 1.57 (gases: g/L at 0°C, 1a7.4340 black = solid, 2.04 2.55 3.04 3.44 3.98 – 5.3917 Li 9.3227 Be innuclear magnetonsN /–1838.28197092(80) 2.792847356(23) –1.91304273(45) 0 0 5Mn2 red = gas, blue = 8.2980, BC 11.2603 14.5341 NO F 13.6181 17.4228 21.5645Ne [He]2s [He]2s Elementary particles are the fundamental constiauents of energy and+ e) . Positive beta decay isElectronegativity [Ar]3d 4s prepared= syntheti[He]2s 2p [He]2s 2p [He]2s 2p [He]2s 2p [He]2s 2p [He]2s 2p Lithium Beryllium matter. The positron (e ) is a posi-ive-energy particle+which has theoton into a neutron, a positron, Pauling scaleo Manganese Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon same mass as an ordinary electron. The antineutrino (n) has similarmagnetic moment (m) of a particle can also be Electronic 22.9897692811 24.3050 12 direction of motion, whereas the neutrino’s spin is always op= 9.2740154(31) x J/T) or the nuclearFPotentialeVtione Configuration 26.981538613 28.0855 14 30.973762 15 32.065 16 35.453 17 39.948 18 97.794 1 652 its direction of motion. Negative beta decay ismagnetonN(= 5.0507866(17) J/T). 660.32 3 1414 –4,2,444.15 ±3,4,5115.21 ±2,4,6–101.5 ±1,3,5,7–189.36 – 0.97940 1.74 neutron into a proton, a beta particle (negative electron), and an Name4 2.70 2.3296 1.823 2.0761 3.2144 1.784847 0.93 1.31 1.61 1.90 2.19 2.58 3.16 – 5.1391 Na 7.6462Mg 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 5.9858 Al 8.1517 Si 10.4867 PS 10.3600 12.9676 Cl 15.7596 Ar [Ne]3s [Ne]3s IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA VIIIA VIIIA VIIIA IB IIB [Ne]3s 3p [Ne]3s 3p [Ne]3s 3p [Ne]3s 3p [Ne]3s 3p [Ne]3s 3p IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB VIII VIII VIII IB IIB Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon 39.0983 40.078 44.955912 47.867 50.9415 51.9961 54.938045 55.845 58.933195 58.6934 63.546 65.38 69.723 72.64 74.92160 78.96 79.904 83.798 63.5 19 842 20 1541 21 1668 22 1910 23 1907 24 1246 25 1538 26 1495 27 1455 28 1084.62 29 419.53 30 29.7666 31 938.25 32 817TP 33 220.8 34 –7.2 35 –157.38 36 759 1 1484 2 2836 3287 2,3,43407 2,3,4,52671 2,3,62061 2,3,4,6,2861 2,3 2927 ,32913 2,32562 1,2907 3 2204 2833 2,4 616SP ±3,5 685 –2,4,658.8 ±1,5 –153.34 – 0.89 1.54 2.99 4.506 6.0 7.15 7.3 7.87 8.86 8.90 8.96 7.134 5.91 5.3234 5.75 4.809 3.120 3.75 0.82 K 1.00 Ca 1.36 Sc 1.54 Ti 1.63 V 1.66 Cr Mn 1.55 1.83 Fe 1.88 Co 1.91 Ni 1.90 Cu 1.65 Zn 1.81 Ga 2.01 Ge 2.18 As 2.55 Se 2.96 Br – Kr 4.3401 6.1132 6.5611 2 6.8282 2 6.7463 2 6.7655 1 7.4350 2 7.9064 2 7.8870 2 7.6398 2 7.72610 1 9.39410 2 5.99910 2 1 7.89910 2 2 9.78810 2 3 9.75210 2 4 11.8110 2 5 13.9106 2 6 [Ar]4s [Ar]4s [Ar]3d 4s [Ar]3d 4s [Ar]3d 4s [Ar]3d 4s [Ar]3d 4s [Ar]3d 4s [Ar]3d 4s [Ar]3d 4s [Ar]3d 4s [Ar]3d 4s [Ar]3d 4s 4p [Ar]3d 4s 4p [Ar]3d 4s 4p [Ar]3d 4s 4p [Ar]3d 4s 4p [Ar]3d 4s 4p Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton 85.4678 87.62 88.90585 91.224 92.90638 95.96 (97.9072) 101.07 102.90550 106.42 107.8682 112.411 114.818 118.710 121.760 127.60 126.90447 131.293 39.30 37 777 38 1522 39 1854.7 40 2477 41 2623 42 2157 43 2334 44 1964 45 1554.8 46 961.78 47 321.069 48 156.60 49 231.93 50 630.628 51 449.51 52 113.7 53 –111.745 54 688 1 1382 3 4 3345 4409 4744 3,5 4639 2,3,4,5,4265 4,6,7 4150 2,3,4,6,3695 2,3,42963 2,3,42162 1 767 3 2072 2602 2,4 1587 ±3,5 988 –2,4,6184.4 ±1,5,7–108.09 – 1.53 2.64 4.47 6.52 8.57 10.2 11 12.1 12.4 12.0 10.5 8.69 7.31 7.287 6.68 6.232 4.933 5.9 0.82 0.95 1.22 1.33 1.6 2.16 2.10 2.2 2.28 2.20 1.93 1.69 1.78 1.96 2.05 2.1 2.66 2.60 4.1771 Rb 5.6949 Sr 6.2173 Y 6.6339 Zr 6.7589 Nb Mo 7.0924 7.28 Tc 7.3605 Ru 7.4589Rh 8.3369 Pd 7.5762 Ag 8.9938 Cd 5.7864 In 7.3439 Sn 8.6084 Sb 9.0096 Te 10.4513 I 12.1298Xe [Kr]5s [Kr]5s [Kr]4d 5s [Kr]4d 5s [Kr]4d 5s [Kr]4d 5s [Kr]4d 5s [Kr]4d 5s [Kr]4d 5s [Kr]4d0 [Kr]4d 5s [Kr]4d 5s [Kr]4d 5s 5p [Kr]4d 5s 5p [Kr]4d 5s 5p [Kr]4d 5s 5p [Kr]4d 5s 5p [Kr]4d 5s 5p Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon 132.9054519 137.327 178.49 180.94788 183.84 186.207 190.23 192.217 195.084 196.966569 200.59 204.3833 207.2 208.98040 (208.9824) (209.9871) (222.0176) 28.5 55 1 722 56 4 5 2233 72 3017 73 3422 2,3,4,5,6185 –1,2,4,6,7033 2,3,4,6,8446 2,3,4,6768.2 782,41064.18 79 1,3–38.8290 801,2 301 81,3 327.462 822,4 271.406 833,5 254 842,4 302 ±1,3,5,7–71 86 – 671 1897 57-71 4603 5458 5555 5596 5012 4428 3825 2856 356.62 1473 1749 1564 962 337* –61.7 0.793 0.89 1.33 1.54 1.73 1.98 2.2587 2.2562 2.25 2.43 1.95336 1.88 1.83 1.99 2.00 2.2 –.73 3.8939 Cs 5.2117 Ba Lanthanoids 6.8251 Hf 7.5496 Ta 7.8640 W 7.8335 Re 8.4382 Os 8.9670 Ir 8.9588 Pt 9.2255 Au 10.4375Hg 6.1082 Tl 7.4167 Pb 7.2855 Bi 8.414 Po – At 10.7485Rn [Xe]6s [Xe]6s [Xe]4f 5d 6s [Xe]4f 5d 6s [Xe]4f 5d 6s [Xe]4f 5d 6s [Xe]4f 5d 6s [Xe]4f 5d 6s [Xe]4f 5d 6s [Xe]4f 5d 6s1 [Xe]4f 5d 6s [Xe]4f 5d 6s 6p [Xe]4f 5d 6s 6p [Xe]4f 5d 6s 6p [Xe]4f 5d 6s 6p [Xe]4f 5d 6s 6p [Xe]4f 5d 6s 6p ✹ Cesium Barium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon (223.0197) (226.0254) (261.1088) (262.1141) (266.1219) (264.12) (277) (268.1388) (271) (272.1535) (285) (284.178) (289) (288.192) (289) – (294) 27 87 696 88 – – 1–4 – – – 10– – – 1–6 – – – 10– – 08 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 677 1 – 2 ––––––––––––––– 4 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 5 – 8–-10– – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.7 Fr 0.9 Ra Actinoids – – Rf – – Db – – – Sg– – – Bh – – Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Uut Uuq Uup Uuh Uus Uuo 4.0721 5.2782 6.0 14 2 2 – 14 3–2 – – 14 –4 2 – 14 5–2 – – 14 –6 2– 14 7 2 14 9 1 14 10 1 14 10 2 14 10 2 1 14 10 2 2 14 10 2 3 14 10 2 4 14 10 2 5 14 10 2 6 [Rn]7s [Rn]7s ✹✹ [Rn]5f 6d 7s [Rn]5f 6d 7s [Rn]5f 6d 7s [Rn]5f 6d 7s [Rn]5f 6d 7s [Rn]5f 6d 7s [Rn]5f 6d 7s [Rn]5f 6d 7s [Rn]5f 6d 7s [Rn]5f 6d 7s 7p [Rn]5f 6d 7s 7p [Rn]5f 6d 7s 7p [Rn]5f 6d 7s 7p [Rn]5f 6d 7s 7p [Rn]5f 6d 7s 7p Francium Radium Rutherfordium** Dubnium** Seaborgium** Bohrium** Hassium** Meitnerium** Darmstadtium** Roentgenium** Copernicium** Ununtrium Ununquadium Ununpentium Ununhexium Ununseptium Ununoctium *Indicates approximate values and/or inconsistent literature data. **Unnilquadium, Unnilpentium, Unnilhexium, Unnilseptium, Unniloctium, Unnilennium, Ununnilium, and Unununium are the previous n57es for0.116 58 140.90765 59 144.242 60 (144.9127)61 150.36 62 151.964 63 157.25 64 158.92535 65 162.500 66 164.93032 67 167.259 68 168.93421 69 173.054 70 174.9668 71 elements 104-112, respectively. 3464 3 3443 ,4 3520 3,4 3074 3 3000 1794 2,31529 2,33273 3 3230 ,4 2567 3 2700 3 2868 1950 2,3 1196 2,3 3402 1. Ratio of the average mass per atom of the ele6.15 to 1/12 of 6.770 6.77 7.01 7.26 7.52 5.24 7.90 8.23 8.55 8.80 9.07 9.32 6.90 9.84 mass of an atom ofnd brackets indicate atomic we1.10 of the 1.12 1.13 1.14 – 1.17 – 1.20 – 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 – 1.0 most stable or best known isotope. 2. Number of 5.5769s La the 5.5387 Ce 5.473 Pr 5.5250Nd 5.582Pm 5.6437m 5.6704 Eu 6.1498 Gd 5.8638 Tb 5.9389 Dy 6.0215 Ho 6.1077 Er 6.1843Tm 6.2542 Yb 5.4259 Lu nucleus of each atom of an element. 3. Number of[Xe]5d 6san atom[Xe]4f 5d 6s [Xe]4f 6s [Xe]4f 6s [Xe]4f 6s [Xe]4f 6s [Xe]4f 6s [Xe]4f 5d 6s [Xe]4f 6s [Xe]4f 6s2 [Xe]4f 6s2 [Xe]4f 6s [Xe]4f 6s [Xe]4f 6s [Xe]4f 5d 6s transferred completely. 4. Names and symbols of elements 104-112Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium are those recommended by the International Union of Pure andApplied Chemistry (IUPAC). 5. Distribution of electrons among the various32.03806 231.03588 238.02891 (237.0482) (244.0642) (243.0614) (247.0704) (247.0703) (251.0796) (252.0830) (257.0951) (258.0984) (259.1010) (262.1097) atomic orbitals. 6. Two older group classifications systems still in use 90 1572 91 1135 92 644 93 640 94 1176 95 1345 96 1050 97 900 98 860 99 1527 100 827 01 827 102 1627 103 today rely on an A/B coding scheme to categorize periodic properties. – 4,5 4131 3,4,5,6– 3,4,5,63228 3,4,5,2011 3,4,5,3100 3 – 3 – – ,– – – – 3 2,3 3 2,3 2,3 3 Because of the potential for confusion between these two systems11.7 15.4 19.1 20.2 19.7 12 13.51 14.78 15.1 – – – – – (i.e., VIIA in one scheme is equal to VIIB in th5.17herAc IUPAC 6.3067 Th 5.89 Pa 6.1941 U 6.2657Np 6.0260 Pu Am Cm5.9738 5.9914 6.1979 Bk 6.2817 Cf 6.42 Es 6.50 Fm Md 6.58 6.65 No 4.9 Lr system.7. Melting point:temperature at which solid and liquid phases 2 2 2 1 2 3 1 2 4 1 2 6 2 7 2 7 1 2 9 2 10 2 11 2 12 2 13 2 14 2 14 2 1 coexist in equilibrium. Boiling point: temperature at which the vapord 7s [Rn]5f 6d 7s [Rn]5f 6d 7s [Rn]5f 6d 7s [Rn]5f 7s [Rn]5f 7s [Rn]5f 6d 7s [Rn]5f 7s [Rn]5f 7s [Rn]5f 7s [Rn]5f 7s [Rn]5f 7s [Rn]5f 7s [Rn]5f 7s 7p ? pressure of a liquid is equal to the external atmospheric pressure.rium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Unless otherwise stated, values are at 1 atm; SP = sublimation point Trade names are the property of their respective owners. Mindsource Technologies Inc. and its at 1 atm; TP = triple point. 8. Mass of the substance divided by its Contributors: T.K. Varga, MASc; C. Bello, MASc partners disclaim all liability for any damage, however caused, which may result from the volume (g/cm 20°C; for gases: g/L at 0°C, 1 atm). 9. Relative A. Bello, BASc, OCT application or misapplication of this information. Visit permacharts.com, or call 1.800.387.3626. measure of the attraction of an atom in a chemical bond for the shared ISBN: 1-55431-287-6 Printed in Canada. © 2007-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. atom in its ground state (1 eV = 96.487 kJ/mol).on from an isolated Revised March 2012. Group Classifications Crystal Structure2 Allotropic Form13 7 Acid/Base Properties11 n 1 (10.4min)b Ni 57 (35.6h) b ,e Pd 103 (16.99d) e Pm 145 (17.7y) e Ir 192 (73.83d) b- Ac 227 (21.77y)b (98.6%),a(1.4%Es 252 (472d) a(76%),e(24%) Ds 281 (11s) SF Selected 0 - 28 59 (7.6x10) e 46 107 (6.5x10 yb- 61 147 (2.623y) b- 77 89 99 253 (20.47d)a 110 Symbol VIIA Enthalpy of Fusion20,kJ/mol 1H 3 (12.32y) b 63 (100y) b- 8 79u 195 (186.12d)e 90Th 228 (1.963y)a 254 (276d) a 111g 280 (ª3.6s) a VIIB Radioactive 4Be 7 (53.28d) e - + 47g 108m(418y) e-92%),IT(2%) 62m 146 (1.03110 y) a 196 (6.18d) e-92%) 230 (7.51010 y) a 112n 285 (ª29s) a Covalent Radius , Å a 21 10 (1.52x10 y) b 29u 64 (12.701h)b (39%),b (19%), 108 (2.39min)b+(97%),e(2%), 147 (1.06x10 y- a 198 (2.694d) b- 232 (1.40x10 y) a 100m255 (20.1h) a Uut 284 (ª0.5s) a Enthalpy of Vaporization 6C 11 (20.3min)b ,e 66 (5.10min)b-41%) 110m(249.8d) b (99%),IT(1%) 151 (90y) b 199 (3.14d) b 91Pa 231 (3.25x10 y) a 257 (100.5d)a(99.8%),SF(0.2%) Metallic Radius/ Mn kJ/mol (at boiling point) Isotopes 14 (5730y) b 67 (2.580d) b- 110 (24.6s) b- 63u 152 (13.48y) e(72%),b (28%)80g 203 (46.61d) b- 92U 233 (1.592x10 y) a 101d258 (51.5d) a 114uq289 (ª2.7s) a [Van der Wa15s 1.35 12.91 22 F 18 (1.830h) b ,e 111 (7.47d) b- 154 (8.59y) b (99.9%), 81l 204 (3.78y) b (97%),e(3%) 234 (2.455x10 y) a 102o 259 (58min) a(78%),e(22%) 115up288 (ª0.09s) a Radius] , Å 1.27 219.7 Enthalpy of Atomization 9 + 30n 65 (243.8d) b (98%),e(1.5%) e(0.02%) Pb 202 (5.3x10 ye 235 (7.04x10 y) a Lr 260 (3min) a 116uh293 (ª0.05s) a Atomic Volume 16 7.35 280.7 kJ/mol (at 25°C) 11Na 22 (2.605y) - (90%),e(10%)31a 67 (3.260d) e 48d 109 (462.0d) e 64d 150 (1.8x10 ya 82 205 (1.51x10 y) e 236 (2.342x10 y) a 103 Uuo294 (ª8.9x10 s) a cm /mol 2.96/9.4 0.479 Specific Heat 24 (14.96h) b 72 (14.10h) b- 49n 114m(49.51d) IT(97%),e(3%) Tb 158 (1.8x10 ye(80%),b (20%) 210 (22.3y) b ,a 238 (4.468x10 y) a 104f 261 (5s) a(60%),SF(40%)118 Capacity 23 1 12Mg 28 (21.0h) b Ge 68 (270.8d) e 114 (1.198minb (97%),e(3%) 65 160 (72.3d) b- Np 236 (1.55x10 y) e(91%),b (105b 262 (34s) a Z eff/Polarizability 144 0.0782 J/g/K (at 25°C & 100 kPa) IA Al 26 (7.1x10 yb (82%),e(18%)32 Sn 121m(44y) IT(78%),b (22%) 3 - 83i 207 (32.25) e 93 237 (2.14x10 y) a Sg 263 (0.8s) SF,a 10-2cm3 VIII 13 - 33s 73 (80.3d) e+ 50 121 (1.128d) b- 67o 166m(1.2x10 yb- 208 (3.68610 y) e 239 (2.355d)b- 106 19 24 IA 15P 32 (14.28d) b 74 (17.78d) b-(31%),e(37%), - 166 (1.117d) b 210m(3.0x10 ya-
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