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Permachart - Marketing Reference Guide: Iupac Nomenclature Of Inorganic Chemistry, Lithium Aluminium Hydride, Polyatomic Ion

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Table of Common Cations & Anions of the ElementsNomenclature Semantics
Salts
A salt is a compound consisting of a combination of cations and anions
(e.g., NaCl, KCl) • They comprise the largest class of inorganic compounds
NONMETAL(N) NONMETAL(N')
Formula: NxN'
y
Nomen.: (prefix + first element name)
(prefix + second element stem + -ide)
• In binary compounds between non-
metals, the element named first is
the one which appears first in the
following sequence: Rn, Xe, Kr, Ar, Ne,
He, B, Si, C, Sb, As, P, N, H, Te, Se, S,
At, I, Br, Cl, O, F
METAL(M) NONMETAL(N)
Formula: MxNy
Nomenclature: (metal element)
(non-metal element stem + -ide)
An ionic bond is the attractive force
between positive and negative ions;
ions are atoms that have gained or
lost electrons
SALTS CONTAINING ACID HYDROGEN (ACID SALTS)
MULTIPLE SALTS
PEROXO ACIDS
OXIDE & HYDROXIDE SALTS (BASIC SALTS)
OXO ACIDS
METAL(M) – HYDROGEN(H)
Formula: MxHy
Nomen.: (metal element) (hydride)
• The symbol for the metal is written
first (e.g., KH, CaH2) because H is
more electronegative
HYDROGEN(H) NONMETAL(N)
12
345678910
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36
37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54
55 56 57 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86
87 88 89
104 105 106 107 108 109 110
HHe
H- H+
Hydrogen Helium
Li Be BCNOFNe
Li+Be2+ B3+ C4- C4+ N3- O2- F-
BO33-CO32-N2+
N3+ N4+ N5+
NO3- NO2-
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Na Mg Al Si PSCl Ar
Na+Mg2+Si4-P3-S2-Cl-Ar2+
Al3+ Si4+ P3+ P4+ P6+ S2+ S4+ S6+ ClO- ClO2-
AlO2-SiO32-PO33- PO43-SO42- SO32-ClO3- ClO4-
Sodium
Magnesium
Aluminum
Silicon
Phosphorus
Sulfur Chlorine Argon
KCa Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
K+Ca2+ Sc3+ Ti2+ Ti3+ V2+ V3+ Cr2+ Cr3+ Mn2+ Mn3+ Fe2+ Fe3+ Co2+ Co3+ Ni2+ Ni3+ Cu+ Cu2+ Zn2+ Ga3+ Ge2+ Ge4+ As3- Se2- Br-Kr2+
Ti4+V4+ V5+Cr6+Mn4+GeO32-As3+ As5+Se4+ Se6-Br+ Br3+ Br5+
VO+ VO2+CrO42-MnO42-AsO33-SeO32-BrO- BrO2-
VO3-MnO4-AsO43-SeO42-BrO3-
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium
Manganese
Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium
Germanium
Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
Rb+Sr2+ Y3+ Zr3+ Zr4+ Nb3+ Nb5+ Mo2+ Mo3+ Tc3+ Tc4+ Ru2+ Ru3+ Rh2+ Rh3+ Pd2+ Pd4+ Ag+Cd2+ In+ In3+ Sn4- Sb3+ Sb5+ Te2- I-Xe4+ Xe6+
Mo6+ Ru4+ Ru8+ Sn2+ Sn4+ Te2+ Te4+ I+ I5+ I7+
MoO42- SnO22- TeO42- IO- IO3-
IO4-
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium
Molybdenum Technetium
Ruthenium
Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
Cs+Ba2+La3+Hf2+ Hf3+Ta5+W2+ W3+Re3+ Re4+Os2+ Os3+Ir2+ Ir3+Pt2+ Pt4+Au+ Au3+Hg+ Hg2+Ti+ Ti3+Pb2+ Pb4+Bi3+ Bi5+Po2+ Po4+At- At+
Hf4+W4+ W5+Re6+ Re7+Os4+ Os6+Ir4+BiO3-At3+ At5+
W6+ ReO4-Os8+
Cesium Barium
Lanthanum
Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Fr Ra Ac
Unq Unp Unh Uns Uno Une Uun
Fr+Ra2+ Ac3+ Unq4+ Unp5+
Francium Radium Actinium
Unnilquadium Unnilpentium Unnilhexium Unnilseptium Unniloctium Unnilennium Unununium
Fe 26
(–)(+)
Iron
Symbol
Atomic No.
Anion/Cation1
Name
Note: A/B designations vary depending on the classification system used. Lanthanides and
Actinides have been omitted.
2
IIA
IIA
3
IIIA
IIIB
4
IVA
IVB
5
VA
VB
6
VIA
VIB
7
VIIA
VIIB
8 109
VIIIA
VIII
11
IB
IB
12
IIB
IIB
13
IIIB
IIIA
14
IVB
IVA
15
VB
VA
16
VIB
VIA
17
VIIB
VIIA
18/VIII/01/IA/IA
2
Representative Elements
Noble Gases
Transition Metals
Each box contains the most typical ions and complex ions for the
given element IUPAC now recommends the numerical classification
system given in the top row; however, some authorities prefer
classification schemes that use A/B subgroup designations.
Group 15 Elements Formula:
NHx
• Nonsystematic or trivial names are used widely (e.g., NH3Æammonia;
PH3Æphosphine) • Corresponding systematic names are nitrogen
trihydride and phosphorus trihydride, respectively
Group 16 & 17 Elements Formula:
HxN
Nomenclature: (hydrogen) (non-metal element stem + -ide)
e.g., H2S Æhydrogen sulfide; HBr Æhydrogen bromide
• Solutions of these compounds in water are binary acids • They are named
by using the prefix hydro-, the stem of the name of the non-metal plus the
ending -ic, followed by the word acid (e.g., H2S(aq) Æhydrosulfuric acid;
HBr(aq) Æhydrobromic acid; HI(aq) Æhydroiodic acid)
Arabic numerals: Used as right subscript to indicate number of individual con -
stituents (e.g., CaCl2) • Used as right superscript to indicate charge number (e.g.,
Cu2+) • Used to indicate composition of addition of non-stoichiometric compounds
(e.g., Na2CO310H2O) • Used to designate mass number and/or atomic
number; mass number is written as left superscript and atomic number as
left subscript (e.g., 18
8O, 3
1H)
Commas: Used to separate locants (e.g., cis-bis(glycinato-N,O)platinum) • Used
in solid state chemistry to separate symbols of atoms substituting each other (e.g.,
(Mo,W)nO3n-1) • Used to separate symbols of labeled atoms in selectively labeled
compounds (e.g., [18O, 32P]H3PO4)
Dots: Used to indicate an unpaired electron in free radicals (e.g., CH3, Br)
Used as center dots in formulas of hydrates, addition compounds, double salts,
and double oxides (e.g., NH3BF3)
Dash: Used to indicate bond in structural formulas (e.g., H2N – BF2) • Used
to separate two components in the name of a molecular addition compound (e.g.,
ammonia – boron trifluoride(1:1)) • Used between italicized atomic symbols to
indicate metal-metal bonds (e.g., bis(pentacarbonylmanganese) (Mn – Mn))
Colon: Used to separate numbers indicating proportions of constituents in
molecular addition compounds (e.g., methanol compound with boron trifluoride
(2:1)) • Used to separate appended locants designating atoms of bridging groups
involved in bonding between polynuclear centers (e.g., bis(µ-nonafluorobutyrato-
O:O')-disilver)
Space rule: Used to separate words in names of compounds made of two or
more distinct words (i.e., names for binary compounds and names which include
functional class; e.g., boron trifluoride, sulfuric acid) • Note: Spaces are retained
when species are named as ligands in coordination compounds (e.g., trans-
bis(dipropyl sulfide)dinitroplatinum)
Enclosing marks: In general, three sets of enclosing marks are used: parentheses
( ), brackets [ ], and braces { } (used for clarity when necessary) • Nesting order:
parentheses within brackets within braces (e.g., P[N(CH3)2]3, Al2(SO4)3)Note:
In formulas of coordination compounds, square brackets are used to enclose a
complex ion or a neutral coordination entity (e.g., [Co{SC(NH2)2}4][NO3]2)
Nomenclature: (prefix + element name) (prefix + element stem + -ide)
• Name of less electronegative atom is written first • Normally, the prefix
mono- is omitted from name of first element • Other prefixes are di-, tri-,
tetra-, penta-, hexa-, hepta-, octa-, nona-, deca-, etc. • Absence of a
prefix implies the number one (1)
Note: The total number of positive charges must equal the total number
of negative charges
e.g., As2S3Ædiarsenic trisulfide; NCl3Ænitrogen trichloride; PCl3Æ
phosphorous trichloride; SO2Æsulfur dioxide; N2O5Ædinitrogen
pentaoxide; CO Æcarbon monoxide (Exception: mono- is required to
distinguish from carbon dioxide, CO2); H2OÆdihydrogen oxide (water); N2O
Ædinitrogen oxide; SiO2Æsilicon dioxide; MnO2Æmanganese dioxide
Formula Name
NH3nitrogen trihydride
H2S hydrogen sulfide
H2O dihydrogen oxide
N4S4* nitrogen sulfide
S2Cl2disulfur dichloride
Cl2O chlorine oxide
OF2oxygen fluoride
Cation Anion Name*
Na+Clsodium chloride
Fe3+ Cliron(III) chloride
Ca2+ O2– calcium oxide
Fe2+ S2– iron(II) sulfide
Cation Anion Name*
Na+Hsodium hydride
Ca2+ Hcalcium hydride
*The preferred IUPAC name is sulfur nitride
*Since the metal is more electropositive,
it is written first
Complex Hydrides
NaBH4Æsodium borohydride;
LiAlH4Ælithium aluminum hydride
Oxoacids are aqueous solutions of compounds containing three different
elements: hydrogen, oxygen, and a non-metal
Formula: H–X–O
Nomenclature: (prefix + stem of polyatomic ion + suffix) (acid )
• Prefix and suffix describe the oxidation
state of the central element • In case of
two possible oxidation states, the suffix
-ic is used for the acid with the greater
number of oxygen atoms, and the suffix
-ous is used for the acid with the smaller
number of oxygen atoms • In case of four
possible oxidation states (all halides), the
suffix -ous is used for two acids with the
fewest oxygen atoms, the suffix -ic is used
for two acids with the greatest number of
oxygen atoms, the prefix hypo- is used for
the acid with the fewest oxygen atoms, and
the prefix per- is used for the acid with the
most oxygen atoms • The prefixes ortho-,
meta-, and para- are used to distinguish
acids with differing water content
Formula Name
H3BO3boric acid
H2CO3carbonic acid
H2CrO4chromic acid
HNO3nitric acid
HNO2nitrous acid
H3PO4phosphoric acid
H3PO3phosphorous acid
H2SO4sulfuric acid
H2SO3sulfurous acid
HClO hypochlorous acid
HClO2chlorous acid
HClO3chloric acid
HClO4perchloric acid
HMnO4permanganic acid
H2MnO4manganic acid
Formula: H–O–O–X
Nomenclature: (peroxo- + acid name)
e.g., HNO4Æ peroxonitric acid (H–O–O–NO2);
H3PO5Æ peroxophosphoric acid; H2SO5Æ peroxosulfuric acid;
H4P2O8Æ peroxodiphosphoric acid; H2S2O8Æ peroxodisulfuric acid
Formula: CHA Nomenclature: (cation) (hydrogen) (anion)
• Salts that contain acidic hydrogen in addition to other cations are acid salts
e.g., NaHCO3Æsodium hydrogen carbonate; NaH2PO4Æsodium
dihydrogen phosphate; Na2HPO3Æsodium hydrogen phosphite
Notes: Non-acidic hydrogen is not explicitly cited but an acidic hydrogen
on the anion is included in the name • According to IUPAC Rules, “Hydrogen
shall be followed without space by the name of the anion (e.g., NaHCO3Æ
sodium hydrogencarbonate)”; however, chemists in North America continue
to include the space
Multiple Cations
Formula: CCA and CCCA Nomenclature: (cation) (cation) (anion)
• A multiple salt is one which has at least two different cations; anions
that have a negative charge of two or more may form multiple salts
• A double salt is one which has two different cations; anions which
have a negative charge of two or more may form double salts
e.g., KMgF3Æpotassium magnesium fluoride;
NaNH4HPO46H2OÆsodium ammonium hydrogen phosphate hexahydrate;
Na(UO2)3[Zn(H2O)6](CH3COO)9Æhexaaquazinc sodium triuranyl(VI) nonaacetate
• Cations are arranged in order of decreasing valence (except hydrogen)
• The cations of each valence group are arranged in order of decreasing
atomic number with the polyatomic ions (e.g., ammonium ion) at the
end of their appropriate group
• The prefix aquo- may be used to name a hydrated cation; number of water
molecules is indicated by a numerical prefix (e.g., tetra-, penta-,hexa-, etc.)
Multiple Anions
Formula: CAA and CAAA Nomenclature: (cation) (anion) (anion)
e.g., Ca5F(PO4)3Æpentacalcium fluoride trisphosphate
• Anions are named in the following group order: (i) H(ii) O2– and HO
(iii) Monoatomic inorganic anions (see Nonmetal-Nonmetal)
(iv) Inorganic polyatomic anions: the group with the smallest number of
atoms is first; if two groups have the same number of atoms, then the
group with central atom having the lowest atomic number is listed first
(e.g., CO3
2– is listed before CrO4
2– and CrO4
2– is listed before SO4
2–)
(v) Anions of organic acids are listed in alphabetical order
• The number of anions is not always listed if the valences of the cations
are known or cited • When naming complex salts, separate the salt into two
parts (cation and anion) • Separate the components of the cation and anion
into groups, name each group, and list them in their proper order
Note: Anions with a valence of –2 may form double salts
Formula: COA or C(OH)A Nomenclature: (cation) (oxide or hydroxide) (anion)
e.g., Mg(OH)Cl Æmagnesium hydroxide chloride;
ZrOCl28H2OÆzirconium oxide dichloride octahydrate
• Basic salts are alternatively named as hydroxy or oxy salts
• Multiple oxides and hydroxides are named using the additional prefixes
di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, etc. (e.g., LiAl(OH)42MnO2Ælithium aluminum
dimanganese(IV) tetraoxide tetrahydroxide)
THIO ACIDS
Formula: H–S–X
Nomenclature: (thio- + acid name)
e.g., H2S2O3Æ thiosulfuric acid; H3PO2S2Æ dithiophos phoric acid;
H2CS3Æ trithiocarbonic acid; H3AsS3Æ trithioarsenic acid
Thio acids are derived from oxo acids by replacement of oxygen by sulfur
When more than one oxygen atom is replaced by sulfur, the number of sulfur
atoms is indicated by a prefix (e.g., dithiophosphoric acid) • The prefixes
seleno- and telluro- can be used in a similar manner
Note: Replacement of oxygen by groups other than peroxo and sulfur
are named as: H[PF6] Æhydrogen hexafluorophosphate; H[AuCl4] Æ
hydrogen tetrachloroaurate; H2[PtCl4] Ædihydrogen tetrachloro platinate;
H4[Fe(CN)6] Ætetrahydrogen hexacyanoferrate; H[B(C6H5)4] Æhydrogen
tetraphenylborate • Water solutions of these hydrogen compounds are
acids; to name these compounds, change suffix -ate to -ic acid and
-ite to -ous acid
Binary Compounds
BINARY COMPOUNDS (CONTAINING TWO ELEMENTS)
Inorganic Acids
BINARY ACIDS
Formula: H–X, where Xis an anion from Group 16 or 17 or a poly atomic anion
Nomenclature: (hydro- + stem of non-metal element + -ic) (acid )
Binary acids are aqueous solutions of certain compounds of hydrogen and a
non-metal atom (e.g., F, Cl, Br, I, S) • When gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl) is
dissolved in water, it reacts completely to give hydronium ions (H3O+) and chloride
ions (Cl) (e.g., HCl(aq) Æhydrochloric acid)Note: NH3in water is not an acid
Inorganic Chemistry Nomenclature
TM
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Description
p e r m a c h a rt s MT I n o r g a n i c C h e m i s t r y N o m e n c l a t u r e Nomenclature Semantics Table of Common Cations & Anions of the Elements Arabicnumerals: Usedasright subscript toindicatenumber of individual con- 1/IA/IA 18/VIII/0 stituents(e.g.,2aClsedasright superscript toindicatechargenumber (e.g., H 1 2 13 14 15 16 17 He 2 Cu2+) •Usedtoindicatecompositionof additionof non-stoichiometriccompounds H H+ IIA IIIB IVB V B VIB VIIB (.g.,N2 C3•10H2O •Usedtodesignatemassnumber and/or atomic Hydrogen IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA Helium number; massnumber iswrittenasleft superscript andatomicnumber as 18 3 Li 3 Be 4 Symbol B C 5 6 7 8N O F Ne left subscript 8e.1., Li Be+ Representative Elements B+ C C4+ N- O- F Commas: Usedtoseparatelocants(e.g.,cis-bis(glycinato-N,O)platinum) •Used Fe 26 Atomic No. B33 C32 N2+ Noble Gases N N N5+ isolidstatechemistry toseparatesymbolsof atomssubstitutingeachother (e.g., (–)(+) Anion/Cation N3 N2 (Mo,Wn 3n-1 •Usedtoseparatesymbolsof labeledatomsinselectively labeled LithiuBeryllium Transition Metals Ion Boron Carbon NitrogeOxygen FluorineNeon compounds(e.g.,[O, P]H3PO4) Na 11 Mg 12 Name Al 13 Si 14 P S 15 1Cl Ar7 18 • • Na Mg+ Si P- S- Cl Ar+ Dots: Usedtoindicateanunpairedelectroninfreeradicals(3.g., CH ,Br ) Al+ Si+ P P P+ S S S+ 6ClO 2lO •Usedascenter dotsinformulasof hydrates,additioncompounds,doublesalts, 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Al2 S3O- PO3-P4-SO4SO3- C3O 4lO anddoubleoxides(e.g.,3HF3) IIA IA VA V IA VIIA VIIIA I IIB SodiumMagnesiumIIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB VIII IB IIB AluminuSilicoPhosphoruSulfurChlorinArgon Dash: Usedtoindicatebondinstructural formula2(e.g.,2 N–BF ) •Used K 1 Ca 20 Sc 21 Ti 22 V 23 Cr 24 Mn 25 Fe 26 Co 27 Ni 28 Cu 29 Zn 30 Ga 31 Ge 32 As 33 Se 34 Br 35 Kr 36 toseparatetwocomponentsinthenameof amolecular additioncompound(e.g., K+ Ca+ Sc+ Ti Ti+ V V 3+Cr Cr+ Mn Mn+ Fe Fe+ Co Co+ Ni Ni+ Cu Cu+ Zn2+ Ga3+ Ge Ge+ As- Se- Br Kr+ ammonia–borontrifluoride(1:1)) •Usedbetweenitalicizedatomicsymbolsto Ti V V5 Cr Mn4 GeO-2 As As Se Se Br Br Br indicatemetal-metal bonds(e.g.,bis(pentacarbonylmanganese) (Mn–Mn)) VO VO CrO2 MnO2 3 AsO- SeO- BrO BrO VO- 4 MnO- AsO- SeO- BrO2 Colon: Usedtoseparatenumbersindicatingproportionsof constituentsin Potassium CalcScandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium MIronneCobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium ArsSeleniuBromineKrypton molecular additioncompounds(e.g.,methanol compoundwithborontrifluoride (:1)) •Usedtoseparateappendedlocantsdesignatingatomsof bridginggroups Rb 37 Sr 38 Y 39 Zr 40 Nb 41 Mo 42 Tc 43 Ru 44 Rh 45 Pd 46 Ag 47 Cd 48 In 49 Sn 50 Sb 51 Te 52 I 53 Xe 54 Rb Sr+ Y3+ Zr Zr+Nb Nb+ Mo 6++ Tc Tc+ R4+R8+ Rh Rh+ Pd Pd+ Ag Cd2+ In In 2+44+ Sb Sb+ 2+-4+ + 5+ 7+Xe Xe+ involvedinbondingbetweenpolynuclear centers(e.g.,bis(µ-nonafluorobutyrato- Mo2- Ru Ru Sn 2- Te 2- I-I - O:O')-disilver) Mo4 Sn2 Te4 IO -O Rubidium StrontYttriuZirconium NiobMolybdeTechnetium Ruthenium Rhodium SilverCadmiumIndium Tin Antimony TellurIodine Xenon Spacerule: Usedtoseparatewordsinnamesof compoundsmadeof twoor moredistinct words(i.e.,namesfor binary compoundsandnameswhichinclude Cs 55 Ba 56 La 57 Hf 72 Ta 73 W 74 Re 75 Os 76 Ir 77 Pt 78 Au 79 Hg 80 Tl 81 Pb 82 Bi 83 Po 84 At 85 Rn 86 functional class; e.g.,borontrifluoride,sulfuricacid) •Note: Spacesareretained Ba+ La Hf Hf Ta W W3 Re Re+ Os Os+ Ir Ir Pt Pt Au Au Hg Hg Ti Ti Pb Pb Bi Bi Po Po At At whenspeciesarenamedasligandsincoordinationcompounds(e.g.,trans- Hf W W5 Re R-+ Os Os+ Ir Bi3 At At W6+ Re4 Os+ bis(dipropyl sulfide)dinitroplatinum) Cesium BariumLanthanum HafnTantalum Tungsten RheOsmium IridiuPlatinumGold MercuryThalliumLead BismutPoloniumAstatinRadon Enclosingmarks: Ingeneral,threesetsof enclosingmarksareused:parentheses ( ),brackets[ ],andbraces{ } (usedfor clarity whennecessary) •Nestingorder: 87 Ra 88 Ac 89 Unq 104Unp 105Unh 106Uns107 Uno108 Une109 Uun110  Each box contains the most typical ions and complex ions for the Fr Ra+ Ac+ Unq+ Unp+ given element  IUPAC now recommends the numerical classification parentheseswithinbracketswithinbraces(e.g.3 2 3C2l (4 3) ) •Note: system given in the top row; however, some authorities prefer Iformulasof coordinationcompounds,squarebracketsareusedtoenclosea FranciumRadiumActinium UnnilquadiumUnnilpentium Unnilhexium Unnilsepticlassification schemes that use A/B subgroup designations. complex ionor aneutral coordinationentity (e.g2 2 4{S3 2H ) Actinides have been omitted.depending on the classification systemused. Lanthanides and Binary Compounds Inorganic Acids Salts BINARY COMPOUNDS (CONTAINING TWO ELEMENTS) B INARY ACIDS •A salt is a compound consisting of a combination of cations and anions Nomenclature: (prefix + element name) (prefix + element stem + -ide) (e.g., NaCl, KCl) • They comprise the largest class of inorganic compounds • Name of less electronegative atom is written first • Normally, the prefixa: H–X,where X is an anion from Group 16 or 17 or a polyatomic anion mono- is omitted from name of first element • Other prefixes are di-, tri-,lature: (hydro- + stem of non-metal element + -ic) (acid) SALTS CONTAINING ACID HYDROGEN (ACID SALTS) tetra-, penta-, hexa-, hepta-, octa-, nona-, deca-, etc. • Absence of aBinary acids are aqueous solutions of certain compounds of hydrogen Formula: CHA Nomenclature: (cation) (hydrogen) (anion) prefix implies the number one (1) non-metal atom (e.g.,F,Cl,Br,I,S) •When gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl• Salts that contain acidic hydrogen in addition to other cations are acid salts dissolved in water,it reacts completely to give hy3ronium ions (Hde e.g., NaHCO Æ sodium hydrogen carbonate; NaH PO Æ sodium Note: The total number of positive charges must equal the total numbeions (Cl (e.g.,HCl(aq) Æhydrochloric acid) • Note: NH in water is not an acid 3 2 4 o of negative charges 3 dihydrogen phosphate;2NaO 3 sodium hydrogen phosphite e.g.,AsS Æ diarsenic trisulfide; NCl Æ nitrogen trichloride; PCl Æ OXO ACIDS Notes: Non-acidic hydrogen is not explicitly cited but an acidic hydrogen c 2 3 3 3 on the anion is included in the name • According to IUPAC Rules, “Hydrogen phosphorous trichlorid2; SOulfur dioxide2 5 O Æ dinitrogen • Oxoacids are aqueous solutions of compounds containing three different . pentaoxide; CO Æ carbon monoxide (Exception: mono- is required to elements: hydrogen, oxygen, and a non-metal shall be followed without space by the name of the anion 3e.g., NaHCO distinguish from carbon dioxi2e,2COO Æ dihydrogen oxide (wat2r); N O Formula: H–X–O sodium hydrogencarbonate)”; however, chemists in North America continue s Æ dinitrogen oxide; SiOsilicon dioxide; MnO Æ manganese dioxide to include the space 2 2 Nomenclature: (prefix + stem of polyatomic ion + suffix) (acid) t NONMETAL(N) – NONMETAL(N ') • Prefix and suffix describe the oxidation OXIDE & HYDROXIDE SALTS (BASIC SALTS) Formula Name Formula Name r Formula: x Ny state of the central element • In case ofH3BO 3 boric acid Formula: COA or C(OH)A Nomenclature: (cation) (oxide or hydroxide) (anion) Nomen.: (prefix + first element nam3) nitrogen trihydride two possible oxidation states, the suffixH CO carbonic acid e.g., Mg(OH)Cl Æ magnesium hydroxide chloride; (prefix + second element stem + -ide) hydrogen sulfide -ic is used for the acid with the greater 2 3 ZrOC2•8H2O Æ zirconium oxide dichloride octahydrate a 2 number of oxygen atoms, and the suffix H2CrO4 chromic acid • Basic salts are alternatively named as hydroxy or oxy salts • In binary compounds between non-2O dihydrogen oxide HNO 3 nitric acid h metals,the element named first isN4 4* nitrogen sulfide -ous is used for the acid with the smalleHNO 2 nitrous acid • Multiple oxides and hydroxides are named using the additional prefixes the one which appears first in the Cl disulfur dichloride number of oxygen atoms • In case of four H PO phosphoric acid di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, etc. (e4g., Li2l(OH) 2MnO Æ lithium aluminum 2 2 possible oxidation states (all halides), the 4 dimanganese(IV) tetraoxide tetrahydroxide) c following sequence:Rn,Xe,Kr,Ar,Ne,2 O chlorine oxide suffix -ous is used for two acids with the3PO 3 phosphorous acid He,B,Si,C,Sb,As,P,N,H,Te,Se,S, OF2 oxygen fluoride H2SO 4 sulfuric acid MULTIPLE SALTS a At,I,Br,Cl,O,F *The preferred IUPAC name is sulfur nitride oxygen atoms, the suffix -ic is usH2SO 3 sulfurous acid for two acids with the greatest number ofHClO hypochlorous acid Multiple Cations METAL(M) – NONMETAL(N) oxygen atoms, the prefix hypo- is used for Formula: CCA and CCCA Nomenclature: (cation) (cation) (anion) m the acid with the fewest oxygen atoms, andClO2 chlorous acid • A multiple salt is one which has at least two different cations; anions Formula: MxNy Cation Anion Name* the prefix per- is used for the acid with the3 chloric acid Nomenclature: (metal element) Na+ Cl– sodium chloride HClO4 perchloric acid that have a negative charge of two or more may form multiple salts r 3+ – most oxygen atoms • The prefixes ortho-, HMnO permanganic acid • A double salt is one which has two different cations; anions which (non-metal element stem + -ide) Fe2+ C2– iron(III) chloride meta-,and para- are used to distinguish 4 have a negative charge of two or more may form double salts e •An ionic bond is the attractive force O calcium oxide acids with differing water content H2MnO 4anganic acid Fe2+ S2– iron(II) sulfide e.g., KMg3 Æ potassium magnesium fluoride; p between positive and negative ions; PEROXO ACIDS NaNH4HPO 4H O2Æ sodium ammonium hydrogen phosphate hexahydrate; ions are atoms that have gained orince the metal is more electropositive, Na(UO2 3[Zn2 6O) ]3CH C9O) Æhexaaquazinc sodium triuranyl(VI) nonaacetate lost electrons it is written first Formula: H–O–O–X • Cations are arranged in order of decreasing valence (except hydrogen) Nomenclature: (peroxo- + acid name) METAL(M) – HYDROGEN(H) e.g., HNO Æ peroxonitric acid (H–O–O–NO ); • The cations of each valence group are arranged in order of decreasing Formula: M H Cation Anion Name* 4 2 atomic number with the polyatomic ions (e.g., ammonium ion) at the x y + – H3PO 5 peroxophosphoric acid; 2 S5 Æ peroxosulfuric acid; end of their appropriate group Nomen.: (metal element) (hydride)Na H sodium hydride H4 2 8Æ peroxodiphosphoric acid;2 2 8O Æ peroxodisulfuric acid • The symbol for the metal is written H– calcium hydride • The prefix aquo- may be used to name a hydrated cation; number of water Complex Hydrides THIO ACIDS molecules is indicated by a numerical prefix (e.g., tetra-,penta-, hexa-,etc.) first (e.g., KH2 CaH ) because HNaB4 Æ sodium borohydride; more electronegative LiA4H Æ lithium aluminum hydride Formula: H–S–X Multiple Anions Nomenclature: (thio- + acid name) Formula: CAA and CAAA Nomenclature: (cation) (anion) (anion) HYDROGEN(H) – NONMETAL(N) e.g., H S O Æ thiosulfuric acid; H PO S Æ dithiophosphoric acid; e.g., Ca F(PO ) Æ pentacalcium fluoride trisphosphate 2 2 3 3 2 2 5 4 3 – 2– – Group 15 Elements Formula: NHx H2CS 3 trithiocarbonic acid3 H 3sS Æ trithioarsenic acid • Anions are named in the following group orde(ii) Oand HO • Nonsystematic or trivial names are used widel3 Æ ammonia; • Thio acids are derived from oxo acids by replacement of oxygen by sulfur) Monoatomic inorganic anions (see Nonmetal-Nonmetal) PH Æ phosphine) • Corresponding systematic names are nitrogen •When more than one oxygen atom is replaced by sulfur,the number of sulfur Inorganic polyatomic anions: the group with the smallest number of 3 atoms is first; if two groups have the same number of atoms, then the trihydride and phosphorus trihydride, respectively atoms is indicated by a prefix (e.g.,dithiophosphoric acid) •The prefixes seleno- and telluro- can be used in a similar manner group w2–h central atom h2–ing the2–owest atomic num2–r is listed first Group 16 & 17 Elements Formula: HxN (e.g., 3Ois listed before4Crand Cr4 is listed befor4 SO ) Nomenclature: (hydrogen) (non-metal element stem + -ide) Note: Replacement of oxygen by groups other than peroxo and sulfur (v) Anions of organic acids are listed in alphabetical order e.g., H S Æ hydrogen sulfide; HBr Æ hydrogen bromide are named as: H[6F Æ hydrogen hexafluorophosphate; H[4uCl ] Æ 2 hydrogen tetrachloroaurate; Hl ] Æ dihydrogen tetrachloroplatinate; • The number of anions is not always listed if the valences of the cations • Solutions of these compounds in water are binary acids • They are named 2 4 are known or cited • When naming complex salts, separate the salt into two by using the prefix hydro-, the stem of the name of the non-metal plus the(CN6 ] Æ tetrahydrogen hexacyanoferrate;6 5 4C H ) ] Æ hydrogen parts (cation and anion) • Separate the components of the cation and anion ending -ic, followed by the word acid (e.g., Hydrosulfuric acid; tetraphenylborate • Water solutions of these hydrogen compounds are into groups, name each group, and list them in their proper order 2 acids; to name these compounds, change suffix -ate to -ic acid and HBr(aq) Æ hydrobromic acid; HI(aq) Æ hydroiodic acid) -ite to -ous acid Note:Anions with a valence of –2 may form double salts Cations Anions Radicals • Cations are monoatomic or polyatomic species which have one or more • Anions are monoatomic or polyatomic species having one or more • A radical is an atom or group of atoms having one or more unpaired positive charges • The charge on a cation is indicated in names and negative charges • The charge (similar to cations) is indicated in names andelectrons • A radical is indicated by a dot which is right superscript to the formulas by charge number • The words ion and cation may be used formulas by using charge number • Descriptive terms ion or anion may be symbol of the element or group • The formulas of polyatomic radicals are 3+ fllowing the name if it clarifies matters (e.g., CrIII) ion, or used; ending of names should indicate a negative charge placed in parentheses and the dot is placed as right superscript to the chromium(3+) ion, or chromium(III) cation) Hierarchy of Name Endings & Uses parentheses • In radical ions, the dot precedes the charge (e.g., H Note: There is no space between name of element and Roman numeral H3C or (CH3) , (NO) , 2O ) ,2(O ) )• Names of groups which can be -ide -ate -ite rgarded as substituents in organic compounds or as ligands on metals MONOATOMIC CATIONS
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