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Reference Guide

Inorganic Chemistry Nomenclature - Reference Guides

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University of Chicago
CHEM 30100

p e r m a c h a rt s MT I n o r g a n i c C h e m i s t r y N o m e n c l a t u r e Nomenclature Semantics Table of Common Cations & Anions of the Elements Arabicnumerals: Usedasright subscript toindicatenumber of individual con- 1/IA/IA 18/VIII/0 stituents(e.g.,2aClsedasright superscript toindicatechargenumber (e.g., H 1 2 13 14 15 16 17 He 2 Cu2+) •Usedtoindicatecompositionof additionof non-stoichiometriccompounds H H+ IIA IIIB IVB V B VIB VIIB (.g.,N2 C3•10H2O •Usedtodesignatemassnumber and/or atomic Hydrogen IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA Helium number; massnumber iswrittenasleft superscript andatomicnumber as 18 3 Li 3 Be 4 Symbol B C 5 6 7 8N O F Ne left subscript 8e.1., Li Be+ Representative Elements B+ C C4+ N- O- F Commas: Usedtoseparatelocants(e.g.,cis-bis(glycinato-N,O)platinum) •Used Fe 26 Atomic No. B33 C32 N2+ Noble Gases N N N5+ isolidstatechemistry toseparatesymbolsof atomssubstitutingeachother (e.g., (–)(+) Anion/Cation N3 N2 (Mo,Wn 3n-1 •Usedtoseparatesymbolsof labeledatomsinselectively labeled LithiuBeryllium Transition Metals Ion Boron Carbon NitrogeOxygen FluorineNeon compounds(e.g.,[O, P]H3PO4) Na 11 Mg 12 Name Al 13 Si 14 P S 15 1Cl Ar7 18 • • Na Mg+ Si P- S- Cl Ar+ Dots: Usedtoindicateanunpairedelectroninfreeradicals(3.g., CH ,Br ) Al+ Si+ P P P+ S S S+ 6ClO 2lO •Usedascenter dotsinformulasof hydrates,additioncompounds,doublesalts, 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Al2 S3O- PO3-P4-SO4SO3- C3O 4lO anddoubleoxides(e.g.,3HF3) IIA IA VA V IA VIIA VIIIA I IIB SodiumMagnesiumIIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB VIII IB IIB AluminuSilicoPhosphoruSulfurChlorinArgon Dash: Usedtoindicatebondinstructural formula2(e.g.,2 N–BF ) •Used K 1 Ca 20 Sc 21 Ti 22 V 23 Cr 24 Mn 25 Fe 26 Co 27 Ni 28 Cu 29 Zn 30 Ga 31 Ge 32 As 33 Se 34 Br 35 Kr 36 toseparatetwocomponentsinthenameof amolecular additioncompound(e.g., K+ Ca+ Sc+ Ti Ti+ V V 3+Cr Cr+ Mn Mn+ Fe Fe+ Co Co+ Ni Ni+ Cu Cu+ Zn2+ Ga3+ Ge Ge+ As- Se- Br Kr+ ammonia–borontrifluoride(1:1)) •Usedbetweenitalicizedatomicsymbolsto Ti V V5 Cr Mn4 GeO-2 As As Se Se Br Br Br indicatemetal-metal bonds(e.g.,bis(pentacarbonylmanganese) (Mn–Mn)) VO VO CrO2 MnO2 3 AsO- SeO- BrO BrO VO- 4 MnO- AsO- SeO- BrO2 Colon: Usedtoseparatenumbersindicatingproportionsof constituentsin Potassium CalcScandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium MIronneCobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium ArsSeleniuBromineKrypton molecular additioncompounds(e.g.,methanol compoundwithborontrifluoride (:1)) •Usedtoseparateappendedlocantsdesignatingatomsof bridginggroups Rb 37 Sr 38 Y 39 Zr 40 Nb 41 Mo 42 Tc 43 Ru 44 Rh 45 Pd 46 Ag 47 Cd 48 In 49 Sn 50 Sb 51 Te 52 I 53 Xe 54 Rb Sr+ Y3+ Zr Zr+Nb Nb+ Mo 6++ Tc Tc+ R4+R8+ Rh Rh+ Pd Pd+ Ag Cd2+ In In 2+44+ Sb Sb+ 2+-4+ + 5+ 7+Xe Xe+ involvedinbondingbetweenpolynuclear centers(e.g.,bis(µ-nonafluorobutyrato- Mo2- Ru Ru Sn 2- Te 2- I-I - O:O')-disilver) Mo4 Sn2 Te4 IO -O Rubidium StrontYttriuZirconium NiobMolybdeTechnetium Ruthenium Rhodium SilverCadmiumIndium Tin Antimony TellurIodine Xenon Spacerule: Usedtoseparatewordsinnamesof compoundsmadeof twoor moredistinct words(i.e.,namesfor binary compoundsandnameswhichinclude Cs 55 Ba 56 La 57 Hf 72 Ta 73 W 74 Re 75 Os 76 Ir 77 Pt 78 Au 79 Hg 80 Tl 81 Pb 82 Bi 83 Po 84 At 85 Rn 86 functional class; e.g.,borontrifluoride,sulfuricacid) •Note: Spacesareretained Ba+ La Hf Hf Ta W W3 Re Re+ Os Os+ Ir Ir Pt Pt Au Au Hg Hg Ti Ti Pb Pb Bi Bi Po Po At At whenspeciesarenamedasligandsincoordinationcompounds(e.g.,trans- Hf W W5 Re R-+ Os Os+ Ir Bi3 At At W6+ Re4 Os+ bis(dipropyl sulfide)dinitroplatinum) Cesium BariumLanthanum HafnTantalum Tungsten RheOsmium IridiuPlatinumGold MercuryThalliumLead BismutPoloniumAstatinRadon Enclosingmarks: Ingeneral,threesetsof enclosingmarksareused:parentheses ( ),brackets[ ],andbraces{ } (usedfor clarity whennecessary) •Nestingorder: 87 Ra 88 Ac 89 Unq 104Unp 105Unh 106Uns107 Uno108 Une109 Uun110  Each box contains the most typical ions and complex ions for the Fr Ra+ Ac+ Unq+ Unp+ given element  IUPAC now recommends the numerical classification parentheseswithinbracketswithinbraces(e.g.3 2 3C2l (4 3) ) •Note: system given in the top row; however, some authorities prefer Iformulasof coordinationcompounds,squarebracketsareusedtoenclosea FranciumRadiumActinium UnnilquadiumUnnilpentium Unnilhexium Unnilsepticlassification schemes that use A/B subgroup designations. complex ionor aneutral coordinationentity (e.g2 2 4{S3 2H ) Actinides have been omitted.depending on the classification systemused. Lanthanides and Binary Compounds Inorganic Acids Salts BINARY COMPOUNDS (CONTAINING TWO ELEMENTS) B INARY ACIDS •A salt is a compound consisting of a combination of cations and anions Nomenclature: (prefix + element name) (prefix + element stem + -ide) (e.g., NaCl, KCl) • They comprise the largest class of inorganic compounds • Name of less electronegative atom is written first • Normally, the prefixa: H–X,where X is an anion from Group 16 or 17 or a polyatomic anion mono- is omitted from name of first element • Other prefixes are di-, tri-,lature: (hydro- + stem of non-metal element + -ic) (acid) SALTS CONTAINING ACID HYDROGEN (ACID SALTS) tetra-, penta-, hexa-, hepta-, octa-, nona-, deca-, etc. • Absence of aBinary acids are aqueous solutions of certain compounds of hydrogen Formula: CHA Nomenclature: (cation) (hydrogen) (anion) prefix implies the number one (1) non-metal atom (e.g.,F,Cl,Br,I,S) •When gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl• Salts that contain acidic hydrogen in addition to other cations are acid salts dissolved in water,it reacts completely to give hy3ronium ions (Hde e.g., NaHCO Æ sodium hydrogen carbonate; NaH PO Æ sodium Note: The total number of positive charges must equal the total numbeions (Cl (e.g.,HCl(aq) Æhydrochloric acid) • Note: NH in water is not an acid 3 2 4 o of negative charges 3 dihydrogen phosphate;2NaO 3 sodium hydrogen phosphite e.g.,AsS Æ diarsenic trisulfide; NCl Æ nitrogen trichloride; PCl Æ OXO ACIDS Notes: Non-acidic hydrogen is not explicitly cited but an acidic hydrogen c 2 3 3 3 on the anion is included in the name • According to IUPAC Rules, “Hydrogen phosphorous trichlorid2; SOulfur dioxide2 5 O Æ dinitrogen • Oxoacids are aqueous solutions of compounds containing three different . pentaoxide; CO Æ carbon monoxide (Exception: mono- is required to elements: hydrogen, oxygen, and a non-metal shall be followed without space by the name of the anion 3e.g., NaHCO distinguish from carbon dioxi2e,2COO Æ dihydrogen oxide (wat2r); N O Formula: H–X–O sodium hydrogencarbonate)”; however, chemists in North America continue s Æ dinitrogen oxide; SiOsilicon dioxide; MnO Æ manganese dioxide to include the space 2 2 Nomenclature: (prefix + stem of polyatomic ion + suffix) (acid) t NONMETAL(N) – NONMETAL(N ') • Prefix and suffix describe the oxidation OXIDE & HYDROXIDE SALTS (BASIC SALTS) Formula Name Formula Name r Formula: x Ny state of the central element • In case ofH3BO 3 boric acid Formula: COA or C(OH)A Nomenclature: (cation) (oxide or hydroxide) (anion) Nomen.: (prefix + first element nam3) nitrogen trihydride two possible oxidation states, the suffixH CO carbonic acid e.g., Mg(OH)Cl Æ magnesium hydroxide chloride; (prefix + second element stem + -ide) hydrogen sulfide -ic is used for the acid with the greater 2 3 ZrOC2•8H2O Æ zirconium oxide dichloride octahydrate a 2 number of oxygen atoms, and the suffix H2CrO4 chromic acid • Basic salts are alternatively named as hydroxy or oxy salts • In binary compounds between non-2O dihydrogen oxide HNO 3 nitric acid h metals,the element named first isN4 4* nitrogen sulfide -ous is used for the acid with the smalleHNO 2 nitrous acid • Multiple oxides and hydroxides are named using the additional prefixes the one which appears first in the Cl disulfur dichloride number of oxygen atoms • In case of four H PO phosphoric acid di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, etc. (e4g., Li2l(OH) 2MnO Æ lithium aluminum 2 2 possible oxidation states (all halides), the 4 dimanganese(IV) tetraoxide tetrahydroxide) c following sequence:Rn,Xe,Kr,Ar,Ne,2 O chlorine oxide suffix -ous is used for two acids with the3PO 3 phosphorous acid He,B,Si,C,Sb,As,P,N,H,Te,Se,S, OF2 oxygen fluoride H2SO 4 sulfuric acid MULTIPLE SALTS a At,I,Br,Cl,O,F *The preferred IUPAC name is sulfur nitride oxygen atoms, the suffix -ic is usH2SO 3 sulfurous acid for two acids with the greatest number ofHClO hypochlorous acid Multiple Cations METAL(M) – NONMETAL(N) oxygen atoms, the prefix hypo- is used for Formula: CCA and CCCA Nomenclature: (cation) (cation) (anion) m the acid with the fewest oxygen atoms, andClO2 chlorous acid • A multiple salt is one which has at least two different cations; anions Formula: MxNy Cation Anion Name* the prefix per- is used for the acid with the3 chloric acid Nomenclature: (metal element) Na+ Cl– sodium chloride HClO4 perchloric acid that have a negative charge of two or more may form multiple salts r 3+ – most oxygen atoms • The prefixes ortho-, HMnO permanganic acid • A double salt is one which has two different cations; anions which (non-metal element stem + -ide) Fe2+ C2– iron(III) chloride meta-,and para- are used to distinguish 4 have a negative charge of two or more may form double salts e •An ionic bond is the attractive force O calcium oxide acids with differing water content H2MnO 4anganic acid Fe2+ S2– iron(II) sulfide e.g., KMg3 Æ potassium magnesium fluoride; p between positive and negative ions; PEROXO ACIDS NaNH4HPO 4H O2Æ sodium ammonium hydrogen phosphate hexahydrate; ions are atoms that have gained orince the metal is more electropositive, Na(UO2 3[Zn2 6O) ]3CH C9O) Æhexaaquazinc sodium triuranyl(VI) nonaacetate lost electrons it is written first Formula: H–O–O–X • Cations are arranged in order of decreasing valence (except hydrogen) Nomenclature: (peroxo- + acid name) METAL(M) – HYDROGEN(H) e.g., HNO Æ peroxonitric acid (H–O–O–NO ); • The cations of each valence group are arranged in order of decreasing Formula: M H Cation Anion Name* 4 2 atomic number with the polyatomic ions (e.g., ammonium ion) at the x y + – H3PO 5 peroxophosphoric acid; 2 S5 Æ peroxosulfuric acid; end of their appropriate group Nomen.: (metal element) (hydride)Na H sodium hydride H4 2 8Æ peroxodiphosphoric acid;2 2 8O Æ peroxodisulfuric acid • The symbol for the metal is written H– calcium hydride • The prefix aquo- may be used to name a hydrated cation; number of water Complex Hydrides THIO ACIDS molecules is indicated by a numerical prefix (e.g., tetra-,penta-, hexa-,etc.) first (e.g., KH2 CaH ) because HNaB4 Æ sodium borohydride; more electronegative LiA4H Æ lithium aluminum hydride Formula: H–S–X Multiple Anions Nomenclature: (thio- + acid name) Formula: CAA and CAAA Nomenclature: (cation) (anion) (anion) HYDROGEN(H) – NONMETAL(N) e.g., H S O Æ thiosulfuric acid; H PO S Æ dithiophosphoric acid; e.g., Ca F(PO ) Æ pentacalcium fluoride trisphosphate 2 2 3 3 2 2 5 4 3 – 2– – Group 15 Elements Formula: NHx H2CS 3 trithiocarbonic acid3 H 3sS Æ trithioarsenic acid • Anions are named in the following group orde(ii) Oand HO • Nonsystematic or trivial names are used widel3 Æ ammonia; • Thio acids are derived from oxo acids by replacement of oxygen by sulfur) Monoatomic inorganic anions (see Nonmetal-Nonmetal) PH Æ phosphine) • Corresponding systematic names are nitrogen •When more than one oxygen atom is replaced by sulfur,the number of sulfur Inorganic polyatomic anions: the group with the smallest number of 3 atoms is first; if two groups have the same number of atoms, then the trihydride and phosphorus trihydride, respectively atoms is indicated by a prefix (e.g.,dithiophosphoric acid) •The prefixes seleno- and telluro- can be used in a similar manner group w2–h central atom h2–ing the2–owest atomic num2–r is listed first Group 16 & 17 Elements Formula: HxN (e.g., 3Ois listed before4Crand Cr4 is listed befor4 SO ) Nomenclature: (hydrogen) (non-metal element stem + -ide) Note: Replacement of oxygen by groups other than peroxo and sulfur (v) Anions of organic acids are listed in alphabetical order e.g., H S Æ hydrogen sulfide; HBr Æ hydrogen bromide are named as: H[6F Æ hydrogen hexafluorophosphate; H[4uCl ] Æ 2 hydrogen tetrachloroaurate; Hl ] Æ dihydrogen tetrachloroplatinate; • The number of anions is not always listed if the valences of the cations • Solutions of these compounds in water are binary acids • They are named 2 4 are known or cited • When naming complex salts, separate the salt into two by using the prefix hydro-, the stem of the name of the non-metal plus the(CN6 ] Æ tetrahydrogen hexacyanoferrate;6 5 4C H ) ] Æ hydrogen parts (cation and anion) • Separate the components of the cation and anion ending -ic, followed by the word acid (e.g., Hydrosulfuric acid; tetraphenylborate • Water solutions of these hydrogen compounds are into groups, name each group, and list them in their proper order 2 acids; to name these compounds, change suffix -ate to -ic acid and HBr(aq) Æ hydrobromic acid; HI(aq) Æ hydroiodic acid) -ite to -ous acid Note:Anions with a valence of –2 may form double salts Cations Anions Radicals • Cations are monoatomic or polyatomic species which have one or more • Anions are monoatomic or polyatomic species having one or more • A radical is an atom or group of atoms having one or more unpaired positive charges • The charge on a cation is indicated in names and negative charges • The charge (similar to cations) is indicated in names andelectrons • A radical is indicated by a dot which is right superscript to the formulas by charge number • The words ion and cation may be used formulas by using charge number • Descriptive terms ion or anion may be symbol of the element or group • The formulas of polyatomic radicals are 3+ fllowing the name if it clarifies matters (e.g., CrIII) ion, or used; ending of names should indicate a negative charge placed in parentheses and the dot is placed as right superscript to the chromium(3+) ion, or chromium(III) cation) Hierarchy of Name Endings & Uses parentheses • In radical ions, the dot precedes the charge (e.g., H Note: There is no space between name of element and Roman numeral H3C or (CH3) , (NO) , 2O ) ,2(O ) )• Names of groups which can be -ide -ate -ite rgarded as substituents in organic compounds or as ligands on metals MONOATOMIC CATIONS
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