AVS-3750 Lecture 16: 16 – Swine Nutrition

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16 Swine Nutrition
Nutrients required by swine
o Pigs are simple-stomached animals
No aid from microorganisms in stomach rely largely on
NFC (non-fiber carbohydrates)
Fibrous components are not utilized efficiently
o Unlike ruminants, cannot synthesize the essential AA from poor-
quality protein or from non-protein nitrogen (NPN) sources
Need to incorporate more grains into a pig’s diet
o Essential AA (amino acids) in protein are important to pigs
Digestion tract in pigs
o
Liver continuously secretes pile
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2
Bile salts are store in gallbladder
Lots of enzyme created in pancreas
Chemical digestion in stomach
Intestinal digestion occurs mostly in small intestine (mostly
duodenum)
High amount of anaerobic fermentation (like starch) will
get fermented at cecum/colon
Swine Life Cycle
o
3 months 3 weeks 3 days = 114 days of gestation
21-day lactation after birth
Weanling go to nursery for ~ 25 days (until they reach 50
lbs)
Grow out groups 50 to 250 lbs
Some go to market, some become replacement gilts to
become sows (have babies of their own)
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5-day rebreeding which leads to 140-day farrowing
interval
Results in potentially 2.6 litters/year x 12 weaned
pigs/sow = 31.2 pigs weaned per sow per years
o Gilts have about 5 less pigs/year
o Production sequence
Breeding: 7-8 months
Gestation: 3m 3w 3d
Farrowing: 10-11 months
Nursery: 21 days weanling 21 to 50 days
Grow out: 40 days to 25 weeks (5-6 months)
Nutrient requirements
o NRC 2012
o Quantify biology of animals
Determine & adjust requirement
Feed intake
o Grow-finish
o Lactation
Production level
o Grow-finish
ADG
Lean growth rate
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