FDSC 2140 Pr. Paul Dawson Lecture Notes Major Food Constituents: 1. Carbohydrates 2. Proteins 3. Fats 4. Other Organics (vitamins) 5. Minerals 6. Water What is a carbohydrate? A carbohydrate is known as the bodys main energy source, meaning it is metabolized the quickest out of any other food source. It is a structural component for plants, and it is essential for the presence of nucleic acids, such as ribose, RNA, and riboflavin. To be a carbohydrate, a compound much share these three key molecular properties: o Must be composed of C, H, and O o Must contain chains of molecules o There must be a hydrogen to oxygen ratio of 2:1 There are three different categories of carbohydrates based on their molecular structure and where they are contained. These three categories are monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. Monosaccharides: These are classified as carbohydrates with a single carbon chain that ends in a hydroxyl group forming either a ketone or aldehyde. These molecules can alternate between the straight chain form and cyclic form, as long as the functional groups carbon doesnt change.