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Lecture 10

HIST 1720 Lecture 10: history notes

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HIST 1720
Caroline Dunn

Centralization of kingships -england started to centralize because of Vikings (under king Alfred) –already looked at -2 powerful families that were intertwined in their family histories STARTING IN FRANCE --by the time we get to the 1100s the king has control of light blue territory in the north, and he gets married to woman in control of light blue territory in the south (king louie) so he can expand his terrority a great amount—uch more powerful than the kings have been in previous generations --famous marriage between king louie and Eleanor of Aquitaine she is a prominent woman because: -she joined her husband on crusade (reason for 2 crusade because the local population took back the territories from the muslims -the crusaders still had Jerusalem (muslims were hoping to get back) -when they went on the crusade, it wasn’t really successful -also not good for their marriage because (they couldn’t have a son) and the two of them on the crusade decided they were going to end their marriage- he is much more religious than she is -not really supposed to do in medieval Christianity -medieval christian rules did not allow for the divorce -but you are allowed to say the marriage was not valid in the first place---so they can get an annulment, because of the rules that say you are not allowed to marry a relative (they were distant cousins)—she is no longer queen of france coming back from crusades -immediately finds a new husband (suspicious)- Henry is the count of Anjou (and she still has her territory, so louis is not very happy about this) -henry is heir to normandy, so also has control of England (also ends up conquering Ireland) 2 extremely powerful monarchs -louis is struggling trying to get authority over all of france -henry and elanor go on to have many children (we will be talking about Richard and john who go on to become kings of England) -henry rules extensive territory on both sides of the English channel -spends much more time in france, but needs to make sure everything was going ok in England -so he needs deputies in England, so he is heavily involved in creating a bureaucracy in England -to make sure that people are paying taxes, legal disputes are resolved, etc -he strengthens the exchequer – in charge of the treasury department -they did their math on a checkerboard like table on a cloth (the sheriff would come in from various counties in england, bring the money, lay it all on the table and they could check and double check to make sure everyone was beign honest) -located at the royal palace of Westchester (instead of trying to find henry) -henry is also interested in making sure law and legal problems go smoothly -wants to make sure that if crimes are being committed, people are paying fines (because he gets the money) -henry reforms the church law a lot -church has laws that say if the priest commits a crime, the church is responsible for handling the crime, many people accept this, but henry is interested in priest crimes that should be judged in the king’s courts -he comes into conflict in this issue with archbishop tomas becket -thomas says “no, all church crimes are judged by the church” -the 2 go back and forth over this issue for about 15 years -finally henry is so frustrated that one night he said “will no one rid me of this turbulent priest?” -knights heard this and thought he wanted becket dead -the 4 of them go to Canterbury cathedral and give him a chance to follow henry, becket refuses, they kill him -scandalous everywhere; everyone is talking about it -henry has to do penance; in the dog house with the church for a long time with this issue -becket goes on to become a martyr; standing firm on religious rituals; killed in a church; people start coming to his tomb, hear of miracles happening at his tomb -this is why there are pilgrimages to Canterbury -MEANWHILE OVER IN FRANCE 2) Constance of Castile – 1) Eleanor of Aquitaine---Louis king of france ----- 2 daughters 3) Adela of Champagne --2 --Philip Augustus daughters -bailiff (baillis) – new government position that Philip institutes; these people report back to Philip; go out administer the law; collect taxes -the type of people that Philip would appoint to be bailiff in county of champagne is someone in the lower level who has a little money and power but not a ton; he will pay them money to be an official -philip deliberately will send someone to a different part of the country--- this person would be loyal to Philip in paris (relying on men who will be faithful to them) -philip takes this idea of having a capital city; builds a wall around paris—so you don’t have to know where the king is—centralizing the kingship -the louvre was the central locati
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