PKSC 1020 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Celluloid, Polypropylene, Gutta-Percha

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Packaging Materials Polymers PKSC 1020
1. Background
a. Packaging is the largest user of plastics
i. 30% of the total plastics market
b. “plastics” = “polymers (for packaging purposes)
2. History
a. 1843 Malaysia
i. Gutta Percha derived from latex of tropical trees
1. getah sap
2. percha strips of clothes
3. used for knife handles, picture frames, etc
b. Alfred Critcholow Pro-phy-lac-tic Brush Co.
i. Dies and presses for shellac
ii. Straw pulp and gutta percha for buttons
iii. Checks and personal care items
c. Civil War
i. $10,000 reward for substitute for ivory billiard balls
ii. John Hyatt developed celluloid from cellulose nitrate and camphor
iii. Eventually led to material called cellophane
d. Dr. Leo Baekeland
i. Patented controlled reaction between phenol and formaldehyde
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1. Resulted in Bakelite first synthetic resin (aka tv dinner and
frozen dinner venue often)
e. 1930’s – polyethylene was first developed
f. Today polyethylene is most widely used packaging plastic
g. 13.3 billion pounds is used for packaging
h. Six times more PE used than the next most popular plastic
3. Nomenclature
a. Film less than or equal to 0.001” thick
b. Thickness terminology
i. Gauge
ii. Mil
iii. Inches
c. 0.001” = 1 mil = 100 gauge
i. sheet greater than 1 mil thickness
4. Common Types of Plastics
a. All types of plastics are based on carbon unit c-
b. Polyethylene
H H high pressure H H H H H
- C = C - - C C C C C -
H H (15-45,000 psi) H H H H H
Ethylene polyethylene
(by product of petroleum)
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
H Cl Cl H Cl H Cl H
H C C H + HCl - C = C - - C C C C C C -
acetylene hydrochloric H H H H H H H H
acid Vinyl chloride monomer polyvinyl Chloride
5. Figure 9.1 pg. 198
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a. PE available in different densities
i. LDPE, HDPE, LLDPE
ii. Low density, high density, linear low density
iii. Used for break bags to milk bottles
b. PP polypropylene strong, stiff, used for caps with hinges
i. Referred to as the “living hinge”
c. PET polyethylene terephthalate
i. Polyester
ii. Used for carbonated beverage bottles
d. PVC
i. used for fresh meat overwrap
ii. bad oxygen barrier film but meat needs some oxygen
e. Correction
i. EVAL a trade name, common abbreviation is EVOH
ii. PVAL commonly abbreviated PVOH
Fig. 9.4, p. 201
H H H H H H H H H H
H C H H C - C H H C C C H H C C C C - H
H H H H H H H H H H
methane ethane propane butane
Fig. 9.5, p. 202
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