PHSC 1170 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Magnesium Oxide, Sodium Chloride, Carbon Tetrachloride

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23 Mar 2017
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Chem Unit 2 Notes
Chemical Bonds
Goal for electrons:
o To get 8 electrons in the electrons outer shell
Ex. Na loses one electron to have 8 in its outer shell
11 p, 10 e
o Ion: element that has gained or lost an electron
Cation: element that has lost an electron
Positive charge
Anion: element that has gained an electron
Negative charge
o Metals lose electrons and become positively charged
(cation)
o Nonmetals tend to gain electrons and become negatively
charged (anion)
o Transition Metals Copper can lose one or 2 (Cu+ or Cu+2)
Ionic Compounds
o Ionic Bond: Metal + Nonmetal
o Na loses an electron to Cl
o Ionic bonds solid at room temp.
Forula’s ad Naes
o The charge of the ion will be the same as their family/group
(column)
Except transition metals
Ex. Cl- means Cl -1 or gained electron
Cl is in column 7
o Meaning it has 7 valence electrons
o Changing the name:
NEGATIVE ions (anions) add ide
Chlorine ion become Chloride
Oxygen ion becomes Oxide
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o Different for Compounds:
NaCl = Sodium Chloride
MgO = Magnesium Oxide
NaBr =Sodium Bromide
KCl = Potassium Chloride
LiF = Lithium Floride
AgI = Silver Iodide
CuO = Copper II Oxide
MgS = Magnesium Sulfide
o Transition metals
Must keep charge in name
Cu2+ = Copper II ion
Cu+ = Copper I ion
Fe2+ = Iron II ion
o Bonds have to be neutral
Ca2+, Cl1- *drop Ca’s harge for Cl & Cl’s harge for Ca
CaCl2
Al3+ O2- = Al2O3
Mg2+ S2- = MgS
Ca2+ N3- = Ca3N2
K1+ O2- = K2O
Covalent Bonds
Sharing of electrons
o Single Bond sharing one pair of electrons
o Double Bond sharing 2 pairs of electrons
o Triple Bond sharing 3 pairs of electrons
Usually 2 nonmetals
Different levels of Attraction
o Electronegativity: easure of a ato’s attratio for the
electrons in a bond
BY ROW higher from left to right
F is higher than Li
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