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Lecture 1

PO SC 1030 Lecture 1: InternationalRelationsNotes

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Department
Political Science
Course
PO SC 1030
Professor
zeynap
Semester
Spring

Description
International Relations​- ​Study of interactions among various actors that participate in international policies ● Definition is inclusive, not narrow ● World politics/ global politics ● Not limited to states/governments Why should we study IR? ● To understand the world ● Complexity -But, there are patterns ● Interconnectedness and globalization ● Its impact on your -Economic situation -Living space -Your life ● You can make a difference IR as a field of study ● IR is a part of political science ● Political Science is a social science discipline ● Subfields of political science -IR is different than Comparative Politics ● What we will study? Subfields of IR -International Security -International Political Economy ● How do we study World Politics? Actors in IR ● World drama ● No director -No central authority to bring order ● Meet the cast ○ States: Primary actors- starring role ○ Legally equal and sovereign ● Non-state actors State ● States are the building blocks of international system ● State is a territorial entity controlled by a government and inhabited by a population ● Modern definition of the state: Westphalia Treaty (1648) ○ Starting point of modern international system State Sovereignty ● Important concept in IR ● A state’s government is subject to no higher external authority ● It exercises sovereignty over its territory (has absolute control over the land) ○ Making and enforcing laws, collecting taxes ● Recognition ● Nation? State? ○ Kosovo ( 17th February 2008) Non- State Actors ● Intergovernmental organizations ○ Members:States ● Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) ○ Members: Transnational groups and individuals ● Multinational corporations (MNCs) private enterprises with branches in other countries ● Others: Individuals, sub-state actors, terrorist organizations etc Levels of Analysis ● IR is complex/complicated ○ Many competing explanations ○ How to simplify it? ● 4 levels ○ Individual level ○ State (domestic) level ○ System (interstate) level ○ Global level Relations between actors in the international system ● Polarity in IR: the way power is distributed in the international system ● Unipolarity ○ Hegemon ● Bipolarity ● Multipolarity ○ Balance of power The historical context of contemporary IR ● How did the international system evolve? ● The pre-Westphalia World- “old system” (beginning of modern state system) ○ Ancient Greece- City states ■ Precursor of modern state system ● Middle Ages: Religious authority- centralized, political authority- decentralized ○ Small independent feudal units- hierarchical ○ Centralization of religious authority ■ Importance of church Westphalia System ● Westphalia Treaty (1648) ○ Independence of the kings from the Pope ○ Emergence of secular authorities ○ Started a new political order based on “Sovereign state” ● 18th and 19th centuries ○ Popular sovereignty- Who legitimately controls the state ○ Multipolarity- Balance of Power- “Concert of Europe” ○ Peaceful Co-existence: Five powers of Europe (Austria, Britain, Prussia, Russia, and France) ○ End of Balance of Power: two camps emerged 20th Century ● Rapid global change ● First World War 1914-1918 ○ Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Ottoman Empire) were defeated by a allied powers ( Russia, France, U.K, Italy, and US) ● Versailles Treaty (1919) ○ Creation of League of Nations History-cont. ● World War II (1939-1945) ● German resentment ● Economic instability ● Expansionist policies of Japan, Italy, and Germany ● Axis Powers were defeated ● Beginning of the Cold War and creation of the UN Cold War ● A long period of high level tension and confrontation between US and Soviet Union ○ Bipolar system- two superpowers ● Incompatible ideologies: capitalism and communism ● Nuclear arms race- ‘deterrence’ ● Containment, creation of NATO ● Demise of colonialism- Decolonization ● Important events? ( read pp 25-28) Post Cold War ● Fall of Berlin wall and the dissolution of the USSR ● Important event ○ Read: pp 23-33 ● What is next? ○ Unipolarity- US primary ○ Multipolarity: ● 21st century: new trends, uncertainties, challenges to the authority of the state Challenges in the 21st century ● Globalization ○ Political integration- increasing number of IOs ○ Economic interdependence ○ Cultural integration-homogenization ● Ethnic tensions, nationalism, civil wars ● Asymmetric warfare, terrorism, nuclear weapons ● North-South gap ● Human rights violations ● Environmental degradation Generalized statements-​ about political, social, or economic activity ● That seek to describe and explain those activities ● Simplifying device ○ Why things happen and how events and trends relate to each other ○ Accounts for general phenomena/ patterns ● Rather than explaining unique or individual circumstances Theory ● Goals ○ Understand the trends of the past and their impact on today ○ Predict future Good theory Generates testable hypotheses After testing, theory is refined Realism ● Also known as ‘power politics’ ○ Focus is on acquisition, maintenance, and exercise of power by states ○ IR is struggle for power ○ Mainly concerned with security issues ● Dominated the study of IR in the US after World War II ● Has a long historical tradition Power ● A central concept ○ The ability to get another actor to do what it would not otherwise have done ○ Difficult to define and measure ○ Multidimensional- different kinds ○ Hard(tangible) and soft(intangible) power ○ Relational concept- absolute or relative? ○ Soft power is more about the power of ideas Realism ● Modern Realism: Hans Morgenthau ● “World politics is essentially a struggle among ​self interested​ states for ​power​ and position under ​anarchy,​ with each competing state pursuing its own ​national interests​” ● Focus: What the world “is” (not should be) ● Pessimistic view of human nature- selfish but rational ● ‘State of nature’ is ‘state of war’ ○ Conflict is inevitable in IR ● Focus is on 3Ss: State, survival, self help ● Anarchy: main problem of IR, no escape from it ○ Leads to security dilemma (arms race) ○ Egoism + Anarchy= World politics ○ Survival and national security (national interest)---- main goal of a state ○ IR is a ‘Zero Sum Game’ ○ Self help system ● What matter is self-interest, not morality ○ Do whatever is essential to advance that state’s interest ● To keep peace ○ Acquire arms and prepare for war ○ Deterrence and Balance of Power ■ To ensure no state or bloc can control the world (alliances) ■ Deter enemies by increasing power ● Perception of state (primary unit in IR) ○ Rational, unitary, and autonomous ○ Different views are integrated through state structures- state speaks with one voice ○ Constrained by anarchy ● Prospect for international cooperation is poor under anarchy ○ If it happens- low politics ○ International law and org.- weak Nerorealism- Structural Realism ● 1980s adaptation of realism: System level theory ● Kenneth Waltz, ​Theory of International Politics ● International politics is struggle for power- but not because of human nature ○ Due to the ​structure ​of the international system ● Structure is shaped by ​anarchy ​and ​power distribution ​(polarity) ● States are ‘security’ maximizers ● Bipolarity: most stable, less uncertainty Liberalism (Idealism) ● Liber theory in IR & liberal in domestic politics ○ Not the same ● Strongest contemporary challenge to Realism ● Several variants, but many commonalities ● Multiple actors, issues and processes- ‘plurality’ ● Fundamental values: ○ Liberty, individual rights & freedoms, limited government, rule of law, private property, free market, etc ● People: rational & have mutual interests ● Has a long historical tradition Liberalism- Core Assumptions ● What should the world look like? ● Challenges of pessimistic worldview of realism ○ Mix​ ​of conflict and cooperation ● Primary actors: individuals and groups of individuals ● Human nature: optimistic, positive ○ Self interested, but good, altruistic, ethical, moral, rational, cooperative ○ Social progress and peace is possible ○ People can improve their conditions. But how? ● International anarchy & war can be policed by international institutions, laws and norms. Liberalism- Cont. ● Conflict is NOT inevitable- war is preventable, cooperation is possible ○ Collective action ○ Application of reason and universal ethics + education + political reforms + institutions & law + diplomacy ● Rationality: Defining characteristics of human beings ○ No interest in wars. Capable of cooperating for mutual interests. ○ ‘Harmony of interests’: individual freedom & economic prosperity ● IR: struggle for consensus and mutual gain ○ Win/win is possible ● Power- seen in positive terms ○ Non-zero sum game & ‘absolute’ gains ● Emphasize domestic level of forces & interdependence ● Defining characteristics of world politics ○ ‘Complex Interdependence’ (as opposed to anarchy) ○ Fosters cooperation, reduces conflict ● State & non-state actors (transnational actors, individuals, organizations, etc) are important ● Multiple issues ○ Not just security and military and no clear hierarchy ○ Military force is not as effective- its importance has waned ● State perception ○ Not autonomous and not unitary- “pluralistic” ○ Does not have a single set of interest, competing interests ○ State behavior is shaped by its preferences (not power) ● To keep the peace: IOs and ‘Collective Security” Economic Liberalism ● Adam Smith (​Wealth of Nations-1776) ● Economic self interest- competition- wealth ● ‘Invisible hand’-- freely operating market ○ Interdependence and wealth for all ● Minimal state intervention ○ No economic protectionism ● ‘Free trade’ & ‘comparative advantage’ ● ‘Economic’ should determine ‘politics’ Neoliberalism Institutionalism ● Version of liberalism ● Even under anarchy cooperation is possible ● Why do states choose to cooperate? ○ Not because of human nature ○ When actors interact with each other continuously, it is in their self interest ○ Cooperation is fragile-- free riders ○ International Organizations promote cooperation Foreign Policy ● What is foreign policy? ● Relationship between Power & Foreign Policy ● Determinants of Foreign Policy Introduction ● Global Drama ○ What drives the action on the world stage? ● World Politics is the story of ○ The motivations and calculations of the actors + ○ How they put those into action Actors and Foreign Policy ● Primary actors ○ States, IGOs,NGOs,MNCs, transnational groups, individuals ● In this chapter-- Focus is on states ● How do states make and carry out foreign policy? ● To understand what goes on between states it is necessary to understand what goes on within them ○ Domestic sources of foreign policy ● Definition ○ Strategies used by governments to guide their actions in the international arena and realize their international goals. ○ Course of action pursued by a government in its dealings with other states ● Goals + values + means/instruments ● Foreign policy process (how politics are arrived at and implemented in various states) is complex ○ Levels of analysis Power and Foreign Policy ● Power capabilities---- FP------action ● Effective FP-- Not possible without power ● Goal:to influence others ● Foreign policy tools ○ Sticks (threat), carrots (inducements), sermons (moral persuasion) ○ Peaceful to coercive (diplomacy, aid, sanctions, suicide bombings, alliances, use of military force) ● Objectives: Hierarchical (vital/core; essential/ middle range; desirable/ long range goals) Determinants of Foreign Policy ● Why states behave as they do in international politics? ● Which variables influence FP decision making? ● Not just leaders-- No single factor can fully explain ● Multiple factors influence FP decision ○ Their relative weight depends on the circumstances at the time of the decision ○ Type of situation? (crisis vs non crisis) ○ Nature of the issue? (Pure foreign policy vs intermestic) ● Factors that influence foreign policy choices ● ‘Casual funnel’: three part framework ○ Factors grouped into three source categories + input, output (outcome), feedback ○ Each category encompasses a large number of factors ● 3 levels ○ Individual level factors ○ State (domestic/ internal) level factors ○ System (external-global) level factors Individual level determinants of FP ● Role of individuals (groups) in decision making ○ Personalities, physical & mental health, ego & ambitions, personal experiences, perceptions, beliefs and values, intellectual capacity, rationality ● FP decisions influenced by cognitive, emotional, psychological factors ● Impediments to rationality Impediments to Rationality ● Rational choice-- idealized standard not an accurate description--WHY? ○ ‘Bounded rationality’: Uncertainty, lack or innacurate information, cognitive limitations, time pressure ■ ‘satisficing ‘: good enough ○ Misperceptions, selective perceptions, info screens emotions (affective bias) ○ Cognitive biases: cognitive balance, wishful thinking, analogies, stereotypes ○ Competing interests, conflicting goals ○ Organizational problems State level determinants of FP ● Policy making occurs within the context of a political structure ● How a country's political structure and the political forces & subnational actors within the state shape FP behavior? ● Emphasizes the characteristics of states (domestic factors and national attributes) ● Military capabilities, economic conditions, type of government, sub-state actors (executives, bureaucracies, legislatures, interest groups, public opinion, mass media, military-industrial complex etc) System (external) level determinants of FP ● Focuses on the structural features of the international system ○ Broad international influences on foreign policy ○ Influence of external context/ constraints on the options of states ● Anarchy, power distribution & polarity, military alliances, geostrategic position, economic realities of the international system & globalization, international law & norms, the UN Models of Decision Making ● How do states formulate their foreign policy? ● 3 different perspectives ○ Rational (actor) model ○ Bureaucratic politics (government bargaining) model ○ Organizational process model ● Each captures part of the picture Rational Actor Model ● State is the main unit of analysis ○ ‘Unitary actors’: Homogenous, monolithic, internally united unit ● Rational Choice ○ Purposeful, goal directed behavior ○ Using best information available ○ Rigorous cost-benefit analysis ● Goal of FP: pursuit of vital national interests ● All policy makers go through the same rational thought process ● Steps ○ Problem recognition and definition ○ Goal selection and ordering ○ Identification of alternatives (available policy options) and their consequences ○ Choice (highest benefit, lowest cost) ● Very attractive model, decisions are rational and product of careful deliberation Bureaucratic Politics (Government Bargaining) Model ● Organizations have interests, missions, agenda ● FP is the product of bargaining and power struggle between various government agencies ○ Tug of war, bureaucratic competition ○ They fight for their interests and try to increase their own influence ○ Role & Budget ● Where someone stands- may depend on where (s)he sits Organizational Process Model ● Government is composed of large orgs ○ Orgs determine the infor and options available to the leaders ● Highlights the impact of values, procedures, organizational processes and culture (of the agency) of FP decisions ● FP makers skip the labor intensive process ○ Rely on standard operating procedures (SoP) of agencies + precedents ○ Application of similar procedures to various cases Conflict and Peace ● Conflict in war ● Trends in Armed Conflict ● Nature of War ○ Types of war & conflict ● Causes of War Introduction ● War is pervasive part of global politics ● Old, destructive, complex ● Destruction of war has worsened across time ○ Civilian casualties increased dramatically ● We need to understand causes ● Key terms first, then graphs from Uppsala university ○ Trends (1946-2015) Conflict and War ● Conflict and War are different things ● Conflict is a disagreement- incompatible interests ○ Difference in preferred outcomes in a bargaining situation ○ Common--- does not have to be threatening, violent & destructive ○ Can be ethnic, religious, ideological + territorial, governmental, economic etc ● War is a condition arising within states/ between states ○ When actors use violent means to coerce opponents into submission ○ Most sever form of conflict Key Terms: Armed Conflict ● Armed Conflict ○ A contested incompatibility + use of armed force between two parties at least one is governmental of a state, results in at least 25 battle-related deaths ● Types of conflict ○ Interstate: between two or more states ○ Intrastate: between gov of a state and internal opposition groups ○ Internationalized intrastate: intra state AC + intervention from other states ○ Extrastate: Colonial conflicts ● Intensity of conflict ○ Minor AC: at least 25 battle related deaths in a year, but fewer than a 1000 ○ War: At least 1000 battle related states in a year Trends in armed conflict-2015 ● 1946-2015: 275 ACs in total ● 50 AC active in 2015 (was 41 in 2014, 34 in 2015) ○ Significant increase--- highest since 1992 ● Except 1: all intrastate armed conflict ○ 29 intrastate, 20 international intrastate ● Most ACs are in the global south ● 11 wars (was 6 in 2013) ● The upward trend in fatalities-- did not continue in 2015 ○ The highest number of casualties (since 1989, was 2014) ○ Still below the levels of cold war ○ Violence in the Middle East ● Number of ACs ○ Has decreased substantially since the Cold War ○ Remained relatively stable in the last 15 years or so ○ Since 2012, rise in # of conflicts (nationalism and religious extremism)- but still lower than early 1990s ● Colonial (Extra State)R & Interstate conflicts decreased ● Predominant form of conflict today is Intrastate ○ Intrastate conflicts peaked in 1991/2, declined after, yet rising since 2012 ● Overall decline in casualties since 1950s ○ But rise in recent years ● Since the end of the cold war a downward trend ○ But upsurge in recent years ● Has the waning of war ended? ● Small number of countries carry high risk of armed conflict- but, this pool has shrunk since WWII ○ So some will have conflicts-- expected up/downswings ● Next 5-10 years? What to expect? ○ # of conflicts to remain around 30-40 ○ In the short run; no big changes in these trends ○ In the long run; if slow progress of democratization/ development continue + wars will continue to wane Nature of War ● What distinguishes war from other types of violence ○ Conflict between or among political groups ● War is organized ○ Conventional warfare vs Modern Warfare ● Scale and magnitude ○ War is most severe form of AC ● Changing face of war: Old wars vs New wars ○ Intrastate wars-- identity issues-- Asymmetrical-- Civilians targeted- more barbaric ● Types of war (read text) Why do wars happen? ● We want to know why countries fight ○ No simple answer, multiple causes/ levels ● Explanations ○ Descriptive: focuses on specific direct causes of war ○ Theoretical: focuses on general explanations, applicable to various contexts ● Theories of the causes of war ○ Individual level (micro) causes of war ○ State (domestic) level causes of war ○ System (interstate & global) level causes of war Individual level ● Human nature and psychology ○ Is aggression an instinctive part of human nature or a learned habit ● Personalities, emotions and experience of leaders matter ● Rationality vs deviatio
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