Class Notes (837,548)
United States (325,103)
zeynap (1)
Lecture 1

PO SC 1030 Lecture 1: InternationalRelationsNotes

24 Pages
Unlock Document

Political Science
PO SC 1030

International Relations​- ​Study of interactions among various actors that participate in international policies ● Definition is inclusive, not narrow ● World politics/ global politics ● Not limited to states/governments Why should we study IR? ● To understand the world ● Complexity -But, there are patterns ● Interconnectedness and globalization ● Its impact on your -Economic situation -Living space -Your life ● You can make a difference IR as a field of study ● IR is a part of political science ● Political Science is a social science discipline ● Subfields of political science -IR is different than Comparative Politics ● What we will study? Subfields of IR -International Security -International Political Economy ● How do we study World Politics? Actors in IR ● World drama ● No director -No central authority to bring order ● Meet the cast ○ States: Primary actors- starring role ○ Legally equal and sovereign ● Non-state actors State ● States are the building blocks of international system ● State is a territorial entity controlled by a government and inhabited by a population ● Modern definition of the state: Westphalia Treaty (1648) ○ Starting point of modern international system State Sovereignty ● Important concept in IR ● A state’s government is subject to no higher external authority ● It exercises sovereignty over its territory (has absolute control over the land) ○ Making and enforcing laws, collecting taxes ● Recognition ● Nation? State? ○ Kosovo ( 17th February 2008) Non- State Actors ● Intergovernmental organizations ○ Members:States ● Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) ○ Members: Transnational groups and individuals ● Multinational corporations (MNCs) private enterprises with branches in other countries ● Others: Individuals, sub-state actors, terrorist organizations etc Levels of Analysis ● IR is complex/complicated ○ Many competing explanations ○ How to simplify it? ● 4 levels ○ Individual level ○ State (domestic) level ○ System (interstate) level ○ Global level Relations between actors in the international system ● Polarity in IR: the way power is distributed in the international system ● Unipolarity ○ Hegemon ● Bipolarity ● Multipolarity ○ Balance of power The historical context of contemporary IR ● How did the international system evolve? ● The pre-Westphalia World- “old system” (beginning of modern state system) ○ Ancient Greece- City states ■ Precursor of modern state system ● Middle Ages: Religious authority- centralized, political authority- decentralized ○ Small independent feudal units- hierarchical ○ Centralization of religious authority ■ Importance of church Westphalia System ● Westphalia Treaty (1648) ○ Independence of the kings from the Pope ○ Emergence of secular authorities ○ Started a new political order based on “Sovereign state” ● 18th and 19th centuries ○ Popular sovereignty- Who legitimately controls the state ○ Multipolarity- Balance of Power- “Concert of Europe” ○ Peaceful Co-existence: Five powers of Europe (Austria, Britain, Prussia, Russia, and France) ○ End of Balance of Power: two camps emerged 20th Century ● Rapid global change ● First World War 1914-1918 ○ Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Ottoman Empire) were defeated by a allied powers ( Russia, France, U.K, Italy, and US) ● Versailles Treaty (1919) ○ Creation of League of Nations History-cont. ● World War II (1939-1945) ● German resentment ● Economic instability ● Expansionist policies of Japan, Italy, and Germany ● Axis Powers were defeated ● Beginning of the Cold War and creation of the UN Cold War ● A long period of high level tension and confrontation between US and Soviet Union ○ Bipolar system- two superpowers ● Incompatible ideologies: capitalism and communism ● Nuclear arms race- ‘deterrence’ ● Containment, creation of NATO ● Demise of colonialism- Decolonization ● Important events? ( read pp 25-28) Post Cold War ● Fall of Berlin wall and the dissolution of the USSR ● Important event ○ Read: pp 23-33 ● What is next? ○ Unipolarity- US primary ○ Multipolarity: ● 21st century: new trends, uncertainties, challenges to the authority of the state Challenges in the 21st century ● Globalization ○ Political integration- increasing number of IOs ○ Economic interdependence ○ Cultural integration-homogenization ● Ethnic tensions, nationalism, civil wars ● Asymmetric warfare, terrorism, nuclear weapons ● North-South gap ● Human rights violations ● Environmental degradation Generalized statements-​ about political, social, or economic activity ● That seek to describe and explain those activities ● Simplifying device ○ Why things happen and how events and trends relate to each other ○ Accounts for general phenomena/ patterns ● Rather than explaining unique or individual circumstances Theory ● Goals ○ Understand the trends of the past and their impact on today ○ Predict future Good theory Generates testable hypotheses After testing, theory is refined Realism ● Also known as ‘power politics’ ○ Focus is on acquisition, maintenance, and exercise of power by states ○ IR is struggle for power ○ Mainly concerned with security issues ● Dominated the study of IR in the US after World War II ● Has a long historical tradition Power ● A central concept ○ The ability to get another actor to do what it would not otherwise have done ○ Difficult to define and measure ○ Multidimensional- different kinds ○ Hard(tangible) and soft(intangible) power ○ Relational concept- absolute or relative? ○ Soft power is more about the power of ideas Realism ● Modern Realism: Hans Morgenthau ● “World politics is essentially a struggle among ​self interested​ states for ​power​ and position under ​anarchy,​ with each competing state pursuing its own ​national interests​” ● Focus: What the world “is” (not should be) ● Pessimistic view of human nature- selfish but rational ● ‘State of nature’ is ‘state of war’ ○ Conflict is inevitable in IR ● Focus is on 3Ss: State, survival, self help ● Anarchy: main problem of IR, no escape from it ○ Leads to security dilemma (arms race) ○ Egoism + Anarchy= World politics ○ Survival and national security (national interest)---- main goal of a state ○ IR is a ‘Zero Sum Game’ ○ Self help system ● What matter is self-interest, not morality ○ Do whatever is essential to advance that state’s interest ● To keep peace ○ Acquire arms and prepare for war ○ Deterrence and Balance of Power ■ To ensure no state or bloc can control the world (alliances) ■ Deter enemies by increasing power ● Perception of state (primary unit in IR) ○ Rational, unitary, and autonomous ○ Different views are integrated through state structures- state speaks with one voice ○ Constrained by anarchy ● Prospect for international cooperation is poor under anarchy ○ If it happens- low politics ○ International law and org.- weak Nerorealism- Structural Realism ● 1980s adaptation of realism: System level theory ● Kenneth Waltz, ​Theory of International Politics ● International politics is struggle for power- but not because of human nature ○ Due to the ​structure ​of the international system ● Structure is shaped by ​anarchy ​and ​power distribution ​(polarity) ● States are ‘security’ maximizers ● Bipolarity: most stable, less uncertainty Liberalism (Idealism) ● Liber theory in IR & liberal in domestic politics ○ Not the same ● Strongest contemporary challenge to Realism ● Several variants, but many commonalities ● Multiple actors, issues and processes- ‘plurality’ ● Fundamental values: ○ Liberty, individual rights & freedoms, limited government, rule of law, private property, free market, etc ● People: rational & have mutual interests ● Has a long historical tradition Liberalism- Core Assumptions ● What should the world look like? ● Challenges of pessimistic worldview of realism ○ Mix​ ​of conflict and cooperation ● Primary actors: individuals and groups of individuals ● Human nature: optimistic, positive ○ Self interested, but good, altruistic, ethical, moral, rational, cooperative ○ Social progress and peace is possible ○ People can improve their conditions. But how? ● International anarchy & war can be policed by international institutions, laws and norms. Liberalism- Cont. ● Conflict is NOT inevitable- war is preventable, cooperation is possible ○ Collective action ○ Application of reason and universal ethics + education + political reforms + institutions & law + diplomacy ● Rationality: Defining characteristics of human beings ○ No interest in wars. Capable of cooperating for mutual interests. ○ ‘Harmony of interests’: individual freedom & economic prosperity ● IR: struggle for consensus and mutual gain ○ Win/win is possible ● Power- seen in positive terms ○ Non-zero sum game & ‘absolute’ gains ● Emphasize domestic level of forces & interdependence ● Defining characteristics of world politics ○ ‘Complex Interdependence’ (as opposed to anarchy) ○ Fosters cooperation, reduces conflict ● State & non-state actors (transnational actors, individuals, organizations, etc) are important ● Multiple issues ○ Not just security and military and no clear hierarchy ○ Military force is not as effective- its importance has waned ● State perception ○ Not autonomous and not unitary- “pluralistic” ○ Does not have a single set of interest, competing interests ○ State behavior is shaped by its preferences (not power) ● To keep the peace: IOs and ‘Collective Security” Economic Liberalism ● Adam Smith (​Wealth of Nations-1776) ● Economic self interest- competition- wealth ● ‘Invisible hand’-- freely operating market ○ Interdependence and wealth for all ● Minimal state intervention ○ No economic protectionism ● ‘Free trade’ & ‘comparative advantage’ ● ‘Economic’ should determine ‘politics’ Neoliberalism Institutionalism ● Version of liberalism ● Even under anarchy cooperation is possible ● Why do states choose to cooperate? ○ Not because of human nature ○ When actors interact with each other continuously, it is in their self interest ○ Cooperation is fragile-- free riders ○ International Organizations promote cooperation Foreign Policy ● What is foreign policy? ● Relationship between Power & Foreign Policy ● Determinants of Foreign Policy Introduction ● Global Drama ○ What drives the action on the world stage? ● World Politics is the story of ○ The motivations and calculations of the actors + ○ How they put those into action Actors and Foreign Policy ● Primary actors ○ States, IGOs,NGOs,MNCs, transnational groups, individuals ● In this chapter-- Focus is on states ● How do states make and carry out foreign policy? ● To understand what goes on between states it is necessary to understand what goes on within them ○ Domestic sources of foreign policy ● Definition ○ Strategies used by governments to guide their actions in the international arena and realize their international goals. ○ Course of action pursued by a government in its dealings with other states ● Goals + values + means/instruments ● Foreign policy process (how politics are arrived at and implemented in various states) is complex ○ Levels of analysis Power and Foreign Policy ● Power capabilities---- FP------action ● Effective FP-- Not possible without power ● Goal:to influence others ● Foreign policy tools ○ Sticks (threat), carrots (inducements), sermons (moral persuasion) ○ Peaceful to coercive (diplomacy, aid, sanctions, suicide bombings, alliances, use of military force) ● Objectives: Hierarchical (vital/core; essential/ middle range; desirable/ long range goals) Determinants of Foreign Policy ● Why states behave as they do in international politics? ● Which variables influence FP decision making? ● Not just leaders-- No single factor can fully explain ● Multiple factors influence FP decision ○ Their relative weight depends on the circumstances at the time of the decision ○ Type of situation? (crisis vs non crisis) ○ Nature of the issue? (Pure foreign policy vs intermestic) ● Factors that influence foreign policy choices ● ‘Casual funnel’: three part framework ○ Factors grouped into three source categories + input, output (outcome), feedback ○ Each category encompasses a large number of factors ● 3 levels ○ Individual level factors ○ State (domestic/ internal) level factors ○ System (external-global) level factors Individual level determinants of FP ● Role of individuals (groups) in decision making ○ Personalities, physical & mental health, ego & ambitions, personal experiences, perceptions, beliefs and values, intellectual capacity, rationality ● FP decisions influenced by cognitive, emotional, psychological factors ● Impediments to rationality Impediments to Rationality ● Rational choice-- idealized standard not an accurate description--WHY? ○ ‘Bounded rationality’: Uncertainty, lack or innacurate information, cognitive limitations, time pressure ■ ‘satisficing ‘: good enough ○ Misperceptions, selective perceptions, info screens emotions (affective bias) ○ Cognitive biases: cognitive balance, wishful thinking, analogies, stereotypes ○ Competing interests, conflicting goals ○ Organizational problems State level determinants of FP ● Policy making occurs within the context of a political structure ● How a country's political structure and the political forces & subnational actors within the state shape FP behavior? ● Emphasizes the characteristics of states (domestic factors and national attributes) ● Military capabilities, economic conditions, type of government, sub-state actors (executives, bureaucracies, legislatures, interest groups, public opinion, mass media, military-industrial complex etc) System (external) level determinants of FP ● Focuses on the structural features of the international system ○ Broad international influences on foreign policy ○ Influence of external context/ constraints on the options of states ● Anarchy, power distribution & polarity, military alliances, geostrategic position, economic realities of the international system & globalization, international law & norms, the UN Models of Decision Making ● How do states formulate their foreign policy? ● 3 different perspectives ○ Rational (actor) model ○ Bureaucratic politics (government bargaining) model ○ Organizational process model ● Each captures part of the picture Rational Actor Model ● State is the main unit of analysis ○ ‘Unitary actors’: Homogenous, monolithic, internally united unit ● Rational Choice ○ Purposeful, goal directed behavior ○ Using best information available ○ Rigorous cost-benefit analysis ● Goal of FP: pursuit of vital national interests ● All policy makers go through the same rational thought process ● Steps ○ Problem recognition and definition ○ Goal selection and ordering ○ Identification of alternatives (available policy options) and their consequences ○ Choice (highest benefit, lowest cost) ● Very attractive model, decisions are rational and product of careful deliberation Bureaucratic Politics (Government Bargaining) Model ● Organizations have interests, missions, agenda ● FP is the product of bargaining and power struggle between various government agencies ○ Tug of war, bureaucratic competition ○ They fight for their interests and try to increase their own influence ○ Role & Budget ● Where someone stands- may depend on where (s)he sits Organizational Process Model ● Government is composed of large orgs ○ Orgs determine the infor and options available to the leaders ● Highlights the impact of values, procedures, organizational processes and culture (of the agency) of FP decisions ● FP makers skip the labor intensive process ○ Rely on standard operating procedures (SoP) of agencies + precedents ○ Application of similar procedures to various cases Conflict and Peace ● Conflict in war ● Trends in Armed Conflict ● Nature of War ○ Types of war & conflict ● Causes of War Introduction ● War is pervasive part of global politics ● Old, destructive, complex ● Destruction of war has worsened across time ○ Civilian casualties increased dramatically ● We need to understand causes ● Key terms first, then graphs from Uppsala university ○ Trends (1946-2015) Conflict and War ● Conflict and War are different things ● Conflict is a disagreement- incompatible interests ○ Difference in preferred outcomes in a bargaining situation ○ Common--- does not have to be threatening, violent & destructive ○ Can be ethnic, religious, ideological + territorial, governmental, economic etc ● War is a condition arising within states/ between states ○ When actors use violent means to coerce opponents into submission ○ Most sever form of conflict Key Terms: Armed Conflict ● Armed Conflict ○ A contested incompatibility + use of armed force between two parties at least one is governmental of a state, results in at least 25 battle-related deaths ● Types of conflict ○ Interstate: between two or more states ○ Intrastate: between gov of a state and internal opposition groups ○ Internationalized intrastate: intra state AC + intervention from other states ○ Extrastate: Colonial conflicts ● Intensity of conflict ○ Minor AC: at least 25 battle related deaths in a year, but fewer than a 1000 ○ War: At least 1000 battle related states in a year Trends in armed conflict-2015 ● 1946-2015: 275 ACs in total ● 50 AC active in 2015 (was 41 in 2014, 34 in 2015) ○ Significant increase--- highest since 1992 ● Except 1: all intrastate armed conflict ○ 29 intrastate, 20 international intrastate ● Most ACs are in the global south ● 11 wars (was 6 in 2013) ● The upward trend in fatalities-- did not continue in 2015 ○ The highest number of casualties (since 1989, was 2014) ○ Still below the levels of cold war ○ Violence in the Middle East ● Number of ACs ○ Has decreased substantially since the Cold War ○ Remained relatively stable in the last 15 years or so ○ Since 2012, rise in # of conflicts (nationalism and religious extremism)- but still lower than early 1990s ● Colonial (Extra State)R & Interstate conflicts decreased ● Predominant form of conflict today is Intrastate ○ Intrastate conflicts peaked in 1991/2, declined after, yet rising since 2012 ● Overall decline in casualties since 1950s ○ But rise in recent years ● Since the end of the cold war a downward trend ○ But upsurge in recent years ● Has the waning of war ended? ● Small number of countries carry high risk of armed conflict- but, this pool has shrunk since WWII ○ So some will have conflicts-- expected up/downswings ● Next 5-10 years? What to expect? ○ # of conflicts to remain around 30-40 ○ In the short run; no big changes in these trends ○ In the long run; if slow progress of democratization/ development continue + wars will continue to wane Nature of War ● What distinguishes war from other types of violence ○ Conflict between or among political groups ● War is organized ○ Conventional warfare vs Modern Warfare ● Scale and magnitude ○ War is most severe form of AC ● Changing face of war: Old wars vs New wars ○ Intrastate wars-- identity issues-- Asymmetrical-- Civilians targeted- more barbaric ● Types of war (read text) Why do wars happen? ● We want to know why countries fight ○ No simple answer, multiple causes/ levels ● Explanations ○ Descriptive: focuses on specific direct causes of war ○ Theoretical: focuses on general explanations, applicable to various contexts ● Theories of the causes of war ○ Individual level (micro) causes of war ○ State (domestic) level causes of war ○ System (interstate & global) level causes of war Individual level ● Human nature and psychology ○ Is aggression an instinctive part of human nature or a learned habit ● Personalities, emotions and experience of leaders matter ● Rationality vs deviatio
More Less

Related notes for PO SC 1030

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.