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Lecture 9

PSYCH 2010 Lecture 9: Memory

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PSYCH 2010
Fred Switzer

PSYC 2010 Pr. Fred Switzer Lecture Notes – Memory Steps to Remembering: 1. Encoding = process of remembering information 2. Storage = retention of information over time 3. Retrieval = getting information out of memory Encoding This part of the memory process is automatic, and is known as the unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, frequencies, etc. It can also include well-learned information, but this requires attention, conscious effort, and rehearsal of information (repetition of information) There are three different types of “codes” that are processed during this step, and these are: ▪ Semantics – meanings (words, symbols, etc.) ▪ Acoustic – sounds (language, notes, etc.) ▪ Visual – pictures and images (photos, logos, etc.) Storage This is the second step in the process, where lots of different things get stored in lots of different places. There are two different locations that memories can be stored based on their pathways, and these are working memory, and long-term memory. Working Memory: This location is limited in both duration and capacity. Working memory is believed to hold only 3-5 chunks (organized groups) of information at a time, and only for 12-20 seconds without rehearsal of the information. There are three types of memories that will pass through working memory, and only some will move on to long-term memory. Others are forgotten. These are: **Sensory Memory = immediate memories of surrounding sensations, which only lasts 10’s of milliseconds **Iconic Memory = momentary sensory memories of visual stimuli that lasts only 10’s of a second **Echoic Memory = same as iconic memory, but with auditory stimuli rather than visual Long-Term Memory: Physically, long-term memory is the increase or decrease in neuron firing sensitivity. Longer memory is associated with dendritic changes, or the growing of connections between neurons. The storage capacity is extremely large and while not infinite, is prett
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