Pr. Fred Switzer
Lecture Notes – Intelligence
Most people believe that intelligence is just a score that is received on a test, known as an IQ. This is false,
because an IQ is simply a quotient that is based on a series of analytical questions, and this doesn’t fully
measure someone’s overall intelligence. An IQ is not something you have, but rather something you got.
The IQ formula is:
𝐼𝑄 = 𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑔𝑒 ∗ 100
Where mental age is determined by the answers to the questions.
This then sparks two big questions about the concept of intelligence:
1. Is intelligence a single thing, or a combination of multiple abilities?
2. What are these abilities, if any?
• General Intelligence = intelligence is only one thing, measured by prefrontal cortex abilities, “more
smarts, less smarts”
• Cattell’s Theory = there are two different types of intelligence, and these are fluid (problem solving
abilities) and crystallized (general knowledge and information)
• Thurstone’s Theory = there are seven different abilities, listed as verbal comprehension, reasoning,
perceptual speed, numerical ability, word fluency, associative memory, and spatial visualization
• Gardener’s Theory = there are a lot of different kinds of intelligences, and he tries to categorize them
into nice large groups
• Sternburg’s Theory = there are only three categories of intelligence, and these are analytical, creativity,
Analytical: Includes math skills, reasoning, problem solving, and special reasoning
Social: Includes comprehension