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Lecture 10

PSYCH 2010 Lecture 10: Intelligence

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PSYCH 2010
Fred Switzer

PSYC 2010 Pr. Fred Switzer Lecture Notes – Intelligence Most people believe that intelligence is just a score that is received on a test, known as an IQ. This is false, because an IQ is simply a quotient that is based on a series of analytical questions, and this doesn’t fully measure someone’s overall intelligence. An IQ is not something you have, but rather something you got. The IQ formula is: 𝐼𝑄 = 𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑔𝑒 ∗ 100 𝑐ℎ𝑟𝑜𝑛𝑜𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑔𝑒 Where mental age is determined by the answers to the questions. This then sparks two big questions about the concept of intelligence: 1. Is intelligence a single thing, or a combination of multiple abilities? 2. What are these abilities, if any? Intelligence Theories: • General Intelligence = intelligence is only one thing, measured by prefrontal cortex abilities, “more smarts, less smarts” • Cattell’s Theory = there are two different types of intelligence, and these are fluid (problem solving abilities) and crystallized (general knowledge and information) • Thurstone’s Theory = there are seven different abilities, listed as verbal comprehension, reasoning, perceptual speed, numerical ability, word fluency, associative memory, and spatial visualization • Gardener’s Theory = there are a lot of different kinds of intelligences, and he tries to categorize them into nice large groups • Sternburg’s Theory = there are only three categories of intelligence, and these are analytical, creativity, and social. Analytical: Includes math skills, reasoning, problem solving, and special reasoning Social: Includes comprehension
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