Metabolism overview, energy conservation, free energy, phosphoryl group transfer, redox reactions

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Biochem + Mole Biology
BC 351
Aaron Sholders

Lecture 8Metabolism overviewWhat is metabolismMetabolism is the molecular process in which organisms obtain conserve and utilize energyTwo categoriesCatabolism molecular process in which nutrients are broken down resulting in the conservation of energy in high energy compoundsAnabolism molecular process in which small molecules are used to make large moleculesCatabolic pathways converge on acetyl CoA anabolic pathways diverge from itEnergy conservationstThe 1 law of thermodynamicsEnergy cannot be created or destroyed only conserved from one form to anotherThe amount of energy in the universe remains constantTransformation of energy in biologyNuclear energy from the sunphotonsheat energyphotosynthetic autotrophsEnergy converted to organic compounds chemical energy stored in bondsmechanical and chemical energyndThe 2 law entropy and equilibriumThe entropy of the universe is always increasingEvery process reaches equilibrium eventuallyEquilibrium where the free energy of the system has been minimizedAt this point entropy has been maximized for the system and surroundingsLiving systems avoid this state of maximal entropy and literally operate in a negative entropic state
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