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Regions/functions/articulations of the lower limb, articulations of the pelvic region

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Biomedical Science
BMS 301
Mark Frasier

22 August Evolution theory (anthropologists) Brain developed → tools usage → became bipedal Lucy – bipedal with small brain Theory reorganized Bipedal → tools → brains Regions of the lower limb Region Boundaries Bones Gluteal L 5last lumbar vertebrae) → Hip bone = pelvis bone = os Buttocks – posterior gluteal fold coxae Hip – lateral Iliac crest → hip joint Thigh Posterior: gluteal region → Femur knee Anterior: inguinal leg → knee Knee Distal thigh/proximal leg Dist femur/prox tibia + patella Leg Knee → ankle Tibia and fibula Ankle Distal leg → foot Dist tibia and dist fibula and talus Foot Ankle → down Tarsals, metatarsals, digits Great toe has two phalanges, others have three Singular: phalanx Plural: phalanges Functions of the lower limb Bipedal – equilibrium Bear body weight Locomotion Laetoli: Evidence of Bipedalism Laetoli hominid Lucy ~ 3 feet tall, small brain Knee area, hip, footprints prove bipedalism Hip bone = pelvis bone = os coxae 3 bones – posterior ischium, anterior pubis, superior ilium Ischium pronounced as if it has a k (is-key-um) Meet at acetabulum Last bones in body to fuse (18 – 20 years old) Pelvic girdle – hip bone + sacrum Male vs. female – female has larger opening in pelvic canal; differing angle Articulations Where bones m
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