Pineal gland, renin-angiotensin system, cortisol, hypocortisolism, thyroid, thyroid hormones, hypothyroidism

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Biomedical Science
BMS 360
Douglas Ishii

2 AprilPineal GlandThe pineal gland is a peasized structure buried deep in the brain of humansNearly 2000 years ago this seat of the soul was thought to act as a valve that regulated the flow of vital spirits and knowledge into the brainBy 1950 however scientists had decided that it was a vestigial structure with no known functionMelatoninAn amine hormone derived from the amino acid tryptophanMelatonin is the darkness hormone secreted at night as we sleepIt is the chemical messenger that transmits information about lightdark cycles to the brain center that governs the bodys biological clockObjectivesUnderstand the hypothalamicpituitary regulation of the adrenal and thyroid glandKnow the adrenal hormonal secretions and their functionUnderstand the general adrenal anatomyKnow how thyroid hormones are synthesized and their functionUnderstand primary versus secondary pathologies related to adrenal and thyroid glandsAdrenal cortex secretes steroids androgens cortisol aldosteroneAdrenal medulla secrets catecholamines epinephrine norepinephrineAdrenal medullaepinephrineEpinephrineadrenalineCNSsympathetic nervous systemACTHTable 114
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