Countercurrent multiplier system, urine, renal sodium regulation, mineralocorticoids, treatment of hypertension, ANP, GFR, renal water regulation, potassium regulation

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Colorado State University
Biomedical Science
BMS 360
Douglas Ishii

1 MayThe Countercurrent Multiplier System Concentrates Solutes in UrineTerms isosmotic 300 mOsm hypoosmotic hyperosmoticExample of countercurrent exchange system A hot water pipe flowing to leftClosely adjacent and parallel is a cold water pipe flowing to the rightThe hot water will warm the cold water by countercurrent heat exchangeRenal countercurrent multiplier systemThe descending proximal and ascending distal tubules in the loop of Henle is a countercurrent osmotic exchange systemThe solute becomes hyperosmotic multiplied in the interstitial fluid of the kidney medullaThis system is cleverly controlled simply by the distribution of ion pumps and aquaporins along the tubules and ductsFigure 1418Consider the long loop of the juxtamedullary nephronsADH and aquaporinsHO flows downhill to hyperosmolar gradient in medullary interstitial fluid to vasa 2rectaNote Net water flux out of descending tubule until mOsm gradient becomes equal in nearby interstitial fluid to that in descending tubuleWater flows downhill into interstitial fluid from the descending proximal tubule multiplying solutes from 300 to 1400 mOsm at the hairpinPumping Na and Cl out of the ascending tubule low aquapoins reduces mOsm to 100 mOsm at the distal convoluted tubuleFigure 1419The vasa recta follows the descending and ascending limbs of the tubules in the loop of Henle in the renal medulla
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