Surfactant, airway resistance

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Biomedical Science
BMS 420
Charles Miller

2 November Vital capacity = total lung capacity – residual volume Minute volume = tidal volume x respiratory rate 500 mL x 12 = 6 L/min Alveolar ventilation = (Tidal volume – dead space) x respiratory rate (500 – 150 mL) x RR = 350 x 12 = 4.2 L/min Physiological dead space = anatomical dead space + alveolar dead space P IPP thorax PIPs negative in quiet ventilation P TM– P TP= P A P IP COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Emphysema, chronic bronchitis, asthma Resistance related Restrictive disease Fibrotic lungs Compliance related Surfactant 90% dipalmitoylphosphatyidylcholine Role of Surfactant Low surface tension increases the compliance of lung and reduces work of breathing (IRDS: high surface tension, fluid filled lungs, collapsed lungs) Alveoli are more stable and there is less tendency for small alveoli to blow up big alveoli since the smaller alveoli would have less surface tension. Alveoli are kept at about the same size thus: good gas exchange, even ventilation Keeps alveoli dry
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