Cardiopulmonary baroreceptors, basic arterial baroreceptor reflex

2 Pages

Biomedical Science
Course Code
BMS 420
Charles Miller

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5 October The autonomic nervous system often in conjunction with circulating hormones plays a critical role in regulating both cardiac and vascular function (arterial and venous). Sensors which monitor arterial blood pressure, blood volume, blood chemistry, and plasma osmolarity are critical in providing afferent information to the brain. The pressure and volume sensors are located in important locations: specific arteries, specific veins and cardiac chambers. Likewise, blood chemistry detectors are located in specific regions of the carotid arteries, aorta and in the medulla and plasma osmolarity detectors are found in the hypothalamus. Medulla, hypothalamus and cortex: regulate cardiac and vascular function depending on afferent input NTS: nucleus tractus solidarius – site in medulla receiving input from baroreceptors and chemoreceptors and then inhibitory and excitatory projections occur to SNS and PNS. Projections to hypothalamus also occur (temperature control). Vagal tone: degree of PNS activity which affects basal activity of heart (HR) Baroreceptors at carotid sinus The higher the pressure, the higher the number of action potentials. Lower threshold of 50 mm Hg and upper of about 200 mm Hg Respond more to pulsatile pressure than to constant pressure Increases in resistance evoked by reduced pressure to carotid sinus vary among vascular beds – greatest increase in skeletal muscles with less response in kidneys and le
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