Opioids effects/addiction/tolerance, primary reward pathway, overdose, opioid antagonists, nociceptive pathway, opioid receptors

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Biomedical Science
BMS 450
Douglas Ishii

4 MarchDefinitionsNarcotics Drugs that are both an analgesic pain relieving and a sedativeCocaineamphetamines are medically not narcotics but are legally classified as suchOpioid Compounds natural or synthetic whose major actions are via opioid receptorsOpiate Natural opioids derived from the opium poppyBrief HistoryNeolithic Era 9500 BCESeeds found in burial sites use of opium for pain relief known in Middle East groups including early Sumerians joy plant 4000 BC Egyptians Menoans Greeks RomansOpium with poison hemlockththInquisition 1214 centuryOpium stigmatized in EuropeParacelsusrefers to laudanum an opium extract 1522Opium Wars 18391858China outlaws opium use and Britain goes to war to protect its tradeBritish imports through India results in addiction of 25 of male Chinese population by 1905Friedrich Sertrnerisolates morphine in 1804American Civil WarHeroinsynthesized from morphine by British chemists 1874Heroin sold by BayerHyperdermic syringe ca 1853Harrison Narcotics Act 1914Legal prior to 1914 in USAPossession without a prescription becomes illegalMafia other gangsHeroin is diacetyl morphineNalorphine is an antagonistNaloxone naltrexoneMethadone is agonist
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