Homeostasis, pathophysiology, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, treatment and prevention, epidemiology

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Department
Biomedical Science
Course
BMS 460
Professor
D.Rao Veeramachaneni
Semester
Fall

Description
26 August Homeostasis and Disease State Homeostasis = Dynamic steady state State of equilibrium Constant change: not standing still Complex physiologic control systems Often redundant Feedback regulation Negative Positive Most homeostatic systems tend to be negative feedback systems and regulate deviations from normal, leading the organism back to an optimal state and thereby negating any attempts toward radical excess or deficiency. Severe disturbance to homeostatic state results in disease Reversible injury Functional adaptations Irreversible injury Cell death Disease is also dynamic rather than static Every disease has a range of manifestations and a natural history that varies from individual to individual What is Pathophysiology? Study of the disease process; specifically, understanding of the altered structure-function relationships in disease Unifying concepts of pathophysiologic processes Three interrelated aspects of a disease process forms a framework for understanding pathophysiology Etiology – causative factors Pathogenesis – mechanism Clinical manifestations – functional consequences Etiology Cause of Disease Linked to 2 factors Genetic make up and environmental factors Their interactions Epigenetic changes Iatrogenic – medical errors Health professional-induced Drug-induced, e.g. DES Idiopathic – undetermined E.g. 90% hypertension cases No single etiologic classification is comprehensive Pathogenesis Action-Counteraction Dynamic, ever-changing process Varies with the causative agent and type of tissue affected Bacterial infections Hypertension Clinical Manifestations Symptoms and Signs Symptoms: subjective feelings (e.g. nausea) Signs: objective manifestations (e.g. fever) Syndrome Collection of signs and symptoms occurring together (e.g. Pakinsonism) Lesion
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