Heart, vessel wall layers, alterations in blood flow, atherosclerosis

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Biomedical Science
BMS 460
D.Rao Veeramachaneni

30 October Capacitance venous is 20x capacitance arterial Mean systemic filling pressure Blood pressure in the cardiovascular system when CO = 0 Cardiac performance – cardiac output, venous return, contractility, preload, ionotropy, afterload, heart rate Contractility – force of contraction independent of preload or afterload Preload – right ventricular end diastolic volume Afterload – pressure in the aorta or pulmonary artery ΔPπr4 Blood flow = ΔP/R = 8lμ ΔP – change in pressure, pressure gradient, perfusion pressure 8lμ R = 4 πr μ – blood viscosity Cardiac output = (EDV – ESV) x HR All vessels but capillaries have tunics While there are many similarities in structure throughout the vasculature, some features change according to hemodynamic forces and tissue requirements. Thick-walled aorta withstands pulsatile flow and higher pressures (Windkessel Effect) better than thinner veins. Arterial wall thickness decreases in the smaller vessels BUT the wall thickness to lumen diameter is GREATER meaning the proportional thickness is greater Vessel wall layers: intima, media, and adventitia Intima: Endothelium and thin subendothelial connective tissue next to internal elastic lamina Media: Thicker muscular area of wall with some nutrition of inner most area supplied by blood supply of lumen but 2/3 or so of media is supplied by nutrients and oxygen by vasa vasorum (vessels of vessels) which arise from outside the vessel. Media is between the internal elastic lamina and external elasti
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