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CHEM 111 (69)

Gas observations, kinetic-molecular theory, gas variables, units of pressure, volume vs. pressure, absolute zero, volume vs. amount

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CHEM 111
Dana Johnson

1 November Announcements Model assignment Intermolecular forces Due beginning of class 11/3 Refer to form to help shape your discussion Gas observations Low viscosity Does not resist flow Moves more easily than liquids and solids Generally low densities Measured in grams per liter Liquids and solid → grams per milliliter Miscible Mix together easily in any proportion Liquids depend on polarity Kinetic-molecular theory Postulate 1: particle volume Volume of the particles is much less than the volume of the container Gas is a collection of point masses with empty space between Postulate 2: particle motion Particles are in constant motion They move in straight lines until they collide with something Postulate 3: particle collisions Collisions are elastic Energy exchanges and direction changes Particles do not attract or repel one another 2 factors from the above Speed of motion Collisions give a variety of speeds at any one time Higher temperatures → faster average particle motion Origin of pressure Gas molecules move until they hit something Those collisions exert energy Pressure – Σ the energy of gas colliding with the container Gas variables State of a gas can be described as: Volume (V) Pressure (P) Temperature (T) Amount (n) P, T and n were shown to have specific linear relationships with V As a result, these are interdependent variables that combine to form the “ideal gas law” Units of pressure Pressure = force / area Newton (N) – SI unit of force, kg*m / s2 Pascal (Pa) – SI unit of pressure, M / m
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