Why is there a ≥ in the formula? Δx*mΔu ≥ h / 4π
Gives a limit to how certain we can be
Remember, the more certain a measurement, the smaller the uncertainty (Δx and Δu)
Ideally, these uncertainties would go to zero, but the inequality tells us it can’t go lower
than h / 4π
In the same shell (n value), lower l values = lower energy
Degenerate → orbitals with the same energy
Mendeleev formed his table according to:
The periodic law → properties recur throughout the elements, when arranged by atomic
Now → atomic number
But there was no explanation for these properties
Electron configuration: distribution of eletrons through the orbitals can explain these
Atoms with >1 electron
All orbital discussion has centered on the H electron
Atoms other than H present problems:
What is the limit of electrons to an orbital?
Does this affect the relation orbital energies?
Are the 3 quantum numbers enough to describe the atom?
3th Quantum number Spin quantum number (m ) needsd to describe the electron within an orbital → only +1/2