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CHEM 111 (69)

Heisenburg inequality, periodic table, Pauli exclusion principle, effect of Z, effect of other electrons

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CHEM 111
Dana Johnson

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17 September Heisenberg inequality Why is there a ≥ in the formula? Δx*mΔu ≥ h / 4π Gives a limit to how certain we can be Remember, the more certain a measurement, the smaller the uncertainty (Δx and Δu) Ideally, these uncertainties would go to zero, but the inequality tells us it can’t go lower than h / 4π In the same shell (n value), lower l values = lower energy Degenerate → orbitals with the same energy Periodic table Mendeleev formed his table according to: The periodic law → properties recur throughout the elements, when arranged by atomic mass Now → atomic number But there was no explanation for these properties Electron configuration: distribution of eletrons through the orbitals can explain these properties Atoms with >1 electron All orbital discussion has centered on the H electron Atoms other than H present problems: What is the limit of electrons to an orbital? Does this affect the relation orbital energies? Are the 3 quantum numbers enough to describe the atom? 3th Quantum number Spin quantum number (m ) needsd to describe the electron within an orbital → only +1/2 or -1/2
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