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E 232 (23)

Chronology of Ancient Greece, myth, reality, philosophy terms

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E 232
Sean Waters

28 August Reason, order (framework, organization), moderation Chronology of Ancient Greece Bronze Age (3000 – 1200 B.C.) Greek mainland invaded by Indo-European groups (Acheans, Ionians) 1170 – Trojan expedition: Beginning of epic sagas Middle Ages (1200 – 750 B.C.) Beginning of trade/commerce Development of local order, monarchy, brute force, tyrannies Evolution of Olympian gods Other invasions (Dorians, from northwest) 850 – 750: Homeric Age (Iliad, Odyssey, epic poetry) 776: First Olympiad 800 – 500: Development of Greek city-state (polis) Archaic Greece (pre-Classical) (750 – 480 B.C.) Creation of common language – creation of festivals – development of hero worship City-states continue to grow, religion redefined (establishment of Olympian gods) 650 – 500: Solon (introduction of democratic principle), Pre-socratic philosophers 492 – 479: Persian Wars: Athens defeated Persians at Marathon (490) Classical Greece (480 – 338 B.C.) Age of Pericles (445 – 429) Great philosophers, scientists; literary figures (poets, playwrights, tragedy), historians, artists/sculptors 431 – 404: Peloponnesian wars: Sparta defeated Athens (adverse effects on all) Myth and Reality Archaic: myth = true story Precious possession – sacred, exemplary, significant Sacred tradition, primordial revelation, exemplary model Narrates a sacred history Tells us how a reality came into existence Four functions of myth Create awe/wonder Explain cosmos/world Maintain social structure Guide individual Archetype (arché) Illumination – Athena Desire for system/clarity Olympian order (moral order of cosmos) Nature/divinity intertwined Underlying rational unity/order Underlying fundamental principle: arche Philosophy terms Terms are organized into the four major headings of philosophy: metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, aesthetics Philosophy: The discipline that attempts to present a systematic and complete view of all reality (literally, “love of wisdom”) Metaphysics: The branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of ultimate reality, substance, or being. It also deals with the first principles (“laws”) in accordance with which all things act. Ontology: Having to do with the essential characteristics of being. The study of the order and structure of reality. The study which attempts to describe the nature of ultimate being (The One, The Absolute, The Perfect Eternal) Cosmology: A theory of the origination of the universe. The study of the universe
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