Minerals, calcium

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Colorado State University
Food Sci+Human Nutrition
FSHN 125
John Avens

18 October Learning Exercise #56 Numerous well-designed, double-blind studies with humans have shown that daily megadoses of 1000 milligrams per day of vitamin C: A. Reliably prevents colds *B. May reduce the duration of colds C. Is almost all excreted in feces and urine D. A and B only E. B and C only Learning Exercise #57 A dietary selenium deficiency can cause: A. Anemia B. Goiter C. Depressed immune function D. Poor growth and development *E. Muscle pain and weakness Learning Objective Compare minerals to vitamins, protein, fat, and carbohydrate, in terms of: Chemical structure Digestion and absorption Functional use Requirement in human diet Minerals are: Non-organic chemical elements Small amounts in food Not digested Dissolve in water Absorbed in small intestine Minerals are used for: Tissue structure Water balance Acid-base balance Regulating body metabolism Nerve impulse transmission Muscle contraction Minerals are: Needed in human body in minute amounts Daily dietary requirement Limited storage in body tissue Learning Objective Which minerals are “essential” in the human diet in Major (macro-) amounts (100 mg or more per day) Sodium Potassium Chloride Calcium Phosphorus Magnesium Sulfur Trace amounts (less than 100 mg per day) Iron Zinc Selenium Iodide Copper Fluoride Chromium Manganese Molybdenum Learning Objective What are the general symptoms of severe/extreme Macro-mineral Deficiency – muscle cramps, irregular heart beat, loss of appetite, convulsions in infants, increased risk of osteoporosis, possibility of poor bone maintenance, weakness, muscle pain, poor heart function Toxicity (excess) – contributes to hypertension in susceptible individuals, increases calcium loss in urine, slowing of the heartbeat, as seen in kidney failure, may cause kidney stones and other problems in susceptible people, impairs bone health in
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